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56 Cards in this Set

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What are the main types of chemical reaction that occur when bromine is extracted from seawater?
Oxidation and reduction.
What are large amounts of copper needed for?
The electrical industry and for piping.
How is the copper purified?
Mining --> froth floatation --> smelting --> electrolysis
In the electrolysis of copper, what type of reactions occur at the anode and the cathode?
Cathode - Reduction
Anode - oxidation
What are the possible side effects of purifying copper on a large scale?
Noise pollution
Production of spoil heaps
Acid rain
Effluent gases
How are the atoms in an ionic lattice structure held together?
Due to the electrostatic attractions between the positive metal ions and the negative non-metal ions.
What is the name of an ionic structure containing water molecules?
Hydrated.
What are the water molecules that exist in hydrated ionic crystals called?
Water of crystallistaion.
What is a precipitation reaction?
Where two solutions react to form a solid.
What are spectator ions.
Ions that are not involved in the reaction. (i.e. are the same before and after the reaction).
What is an ionic equation?
An equation showing just the reacting ions and the final products. NOT THE SPECTATOR IONS.
What are the two main stages involved in dissolving?
Ion separation
Ion hydration (surrounding of the ions by water molecules).
What causes the electrostatic charges between the ions in an ionic structure to be overcome during dissolving?
The many small charges on the polar water molecules are enough to overcome the electrostatic charges.
Which part of the water molecule is slightly negative?
The oxygen atom.
Which part of the water molecule is slightly negative?
The two hydrogen atoms.
How is the ionic structure dissolved?
When the negative end of the water dipole is attracted to a positive ion and pulls it away, it is then surrounded by other water molecules.
How many water molecules should be drawn around an hydrated ion?
A minimum of 5.
What are the ions called if they are surrounded by water molecules?
Hydrated.
What does oxidation entail?
The gain of oxygen.
The loss of electrons.
An increase in oxidation state.
What does reduction entail?
The loss of oxygen.
The gain of electrons.
A decrease in oxidation state.
What oxidation states do all the atoms in elemental form have?
0
What should the sum of the oxidation states in a molecule add up to?
The charge on the compound.
What are half equations used for?
To represent the two parts of a redox reaction.
How many sub shells does the first energy level (n=1) have?
1: s.
How many sub shells does the second energy level (n=2) have?
2: s and p.
How many sub shells does the third energy level (n=3) have?
3: s, p and d.
How many sub shells does the fourth energy level (n=4) have?
4: s, p, d and f.
How many electrons can fit into one atomic orbital?
A maximum of 2.
How many atomic orbitals does an s sub-shell have?
1
How many atomic orbitals does an p sub-shell have?
3
How many atomic orbitals does an d sub-shell have?
5
What type of spin do electrons in doubly occupied atomic orbitals have?
opposite spins.
How is electron distribution represented?
With arrows in boxes. You can be asked to draw up to an including krypton in the exam so go and practice!
Where do the blocks of the periodic table get their names?
From which sub-shell their outer electrons are filling.
What colour and state are the halogens at room temperature?
Fluorine - pale yellow gas
Chlorine - yellow gas
Bromine - Dark red liquid
Iodine - Shiny black solid
What is the volatility of the halogens?
Fluorine - gaseous
Chlorine - gaseous
Bromine - brown gas on warming
Iodine - sublimes to purple vapour on warming.
How soluble are the halogens in water?
Fluorine - reacts with water
Chlorine - slighlty soluble, pale green solution.
Bromine - slightly more soluble, red brown solution.
Iodine - barely soluble, brown solution.
How soluble are the halogens in organic solvents?
All soluble to give coloured solutions.
How does reactivity change as you go down the group?
Reactivity decreases down the group.
What colour precipitate do the halogens form when reacting with silver nitrate?
Chlorine - White
Bromine - Cream
Iodine - Yellow
Are the halogens involved in displacement reaction?
Yes, the more reactive will displace the less reactive.
Are halogens involved in redox reaction?
Yes as they are all relatively reactive, acting as oxidising agents.
What health and safety precautions need to be taken when storing bromine?
Protective equipment worn, glass lined steel tanks, stored over water container, sensitive sensors all around.
What health and safety precautions need to be taken when transporting bromine?
Lead lined steel tanks, routes planned to minimise accidents, avoid residential areas, travel at night.
What are bromine and chlorine used for?
Bromine - anti-knock agents, flame retardents, photography.
Chlorine - hydrochloric acid manufacture, plastics.
How is chlorine manufactured?
By the electrolysis of brine.
What is the formula for concentration?
c=n/V
What is concentration measured in?
moldm-3
When would you perform concentration calculations?
After performing a titration.
How do we define an acid?
pH<7, turns litmus red, liberate CO2 from carbonates, PROTON DONATOR.
How do we define a base?
A proton acceptor.
How do we define an alkali?
A base, which dissolves in water to form hydoxide ions. All alkalis are bases, not all bases are alkais.
What happens in an acid base reaction?
The acid donates a proton (H+ ion) to the base.
What is a conjugate acid/base?
As the acid base reaction is reversible the products formed in the forwards reaction are called the conjugate acid and conjugate bases.
What is a covalent network structure?
Where all the atoms in the compound are covalently bonded. Very strong, high melting point. Eg diamond.
What is a molecular strucure?
Where there are discrete molecules --> weak intermolecular forces, low boiling point, gases at room temp, dissolves easily in water.