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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Safety?
Freedom from actual or perceived psychological and physical injury

Basic needs for the patient's well-being and survival are met.
Where is the Environment?
A place in which the nurse and patient interact

Home
Community
Hospital
Long-term care facility
Clinic
Nurse Assessment for Characteristics of Safe Environment
Basic needs are met
Physical hazards reduced
Transmission of pathogens is reduced
Pollution is controlled
Sanitation is maintained
Integrity of skin is maintained
Staff safey
Nervous and immune systems function
Feeling of well being- "Feeling safe"
Basic Needs
Oxygen

Temperature and humidity

Nutrition
What are Hazards?
Physical hazards
Chemical hazards
Biological hazards
Environmental hazards
Radiation
Thermal
Physical Hazards
Falls and accidents
Restraints
Side rails
Lighting
Obstacles and clutter
Temperature control
Nursing Interventions
Prevent or decrease risk of falls

Call bell, phone, personal items withing reach,

Frequent checking of patient

Assess need for side rails for support

Adquate lighting
Restraints
Indications for use:

Risk of injury to self or others
Interruption of treatment
Disruptive or disturbing behavior

Types:
Physical
Chemical
Seclusion
Nursing considerations when using restraints
Restraint free environment it optimum
Alternative methods
Agency policy
Patient Assessment
Circulation checks, ROM
Hygiene, food, and fluid, elimination needs
Must have a Physician order for use and renewed every 24 hours
Chemical Hazards
Poisons

Chemicals

Medications
Nursing Interventions
Call Poison Control Immediately and follow their instructions

Know poison ingested and amount

Lock up cleaning supplies and medications

Safe medication administration
Chemical Warfare
The tactics and technique of conducting warfare by using toxic chemical agents. The chemicals include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations of deafness; eye and lung irritants; blistering agents, including mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides
Biological Hazards
Microorganisms
Bacteria, virus, fungi, rickettsiae, protozoa, spirochete

Genetic
The nurse knows that biological safety is maintained when:
Transmission of pathogens is reduced
Normal defense mechanisms of the body are supported
Inflammatory process (normal body response to the invasion of pathogens) is functioning
Skin and mucous membranes are intact
The Nurse always practices correct Handwashing
Handwashing
Between patient contact
After contact with blood and body fluid
After contact with equipment or articles
contaminated with them
Immediately after gloves are removed
Before procudures
Soap and water versus alcohol base cleaners
Nurse always practices Asepsis
Medical Asepsis
Clean technique
Reduction and prevention of the spread of microorganisms by:
Handwashing, clean gloves, cleaning/disinfecting

Surgical Asepsis
Sterile techniqe
ALL microorganisms including pathogens and spores are eliminated through sterilization procedures
The Nurse always follows Standard Precautions
Always Maintain Standard Precautions to reduce the risk of transmission of blood-borne and other pathogens

Blood
All body fluids, secretions, excretions
Non-intact skin
Mucous membranes
The Nurse Wears the Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment
Masks: droplet or airborne protection
Goggles: splashing or spraying
Gowns: barrier protection, fluid-resistant
Gloves: Clean, touching blood, body fluids, contaminated items
Shoe Protectors and Bonnets when appropriate
The Nurse Properly Uses and Disposes of Sharps
Sharps are needles, scalpel blades, glass slides, sutures, test tubes

Disposed in rigid, leak and puncture proof labeled containers as near to the point of use as possible

OSHA guidelines: needless systems, retractable needle, protective devices,

DO NOT RECAP
The Nurse Provides Hygienic Care
Bathing and skin care (Perineal)
Back rub
Foot & Nail care
Oral hygience
Hair & Scalp
Eyes, ears, nose
Basic principles of safety when providing hygenic care
Capillary action carries microorgansims through wet surface

Friction will remove transient bacteria

Soaps and detergents decrease surface tension and act as emulsifying agents

A clean object becomes contaminated when in contact with a dirty one

Pathogens can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact.
Principles of Hygienic Care
Miroorganism are transmitted by air currents

Bacteria multiply in we warm dark places

Barriers can be used to contain or exclude pathogens

All body secretions are considered contaminated
The Nurse creates a comforable environment
Planning ahead, timeliness

Room Temperature, ventilation, noise

Odors

Pain

Neatness and organization

Cultural considerations in variations in frequency and type of bathing
The nurse assesses the patient for effects of poor hygiene
Buildup of micoorganisms and resultant infections

Change in pH of skin

Gigivitis

Corneal abrasions

Skin breakdown

Social isolation and implications
Biological Warfare
Warefare in which disease-producing microoransims, toxins, or organic biocides (anthrax, brucellosis, plague) are deliberately used to destroy, injure, or immobilize livestock, vegetation or human life.
Environment Hazards
Pollution
Air
Land
Water
Noise

Evidence of perception of crime
Nursing Interventions
Assess individuals at risk
Be an involved citizen
Recognize effects of pollution on body
Instruct in hearing protection
Thermal Hazards
Fire
Electrical
Hypothermia
Hyperthermia
Nurisng Interventions
Fire Safety: Use RACE acronym to set priorities

Rescue
Activate
Contain
Extinguish
Nursing Interventions
Minimize exposure to radiation: time and distance and shielding

Minimize use of Portable CXR

Know instructional policy reguarding
radiation