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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 propreties of CHO
1. E stores, fuel & metab. intermediates
2. Structure for RNA & DNA: Ribose & deoxyribose sugars
3. struc. elem. of bact/plants cell: polysacc. (Cellulose most
organ. compound in biosphere
4. Linked to prot & lip (mediating interac. in cells d/t huge struct. diversity)
Simplest monosacc.
How many exist
Triose (n = 3)
General formula for Carb
(C-H2O)n
Formula for keto group
O==C
Formula for aldehyde group
O
\\
C---H
Name of triose with keto group
dihydroxyacetone (triose)
Name of triose with aldehyde group
D-glyceraldehyde

L-glyceraldehyde
(aldose)
what is study of arrangement of atoms in 3D space
stereochemistry
2 molecules which can be made identical by flipping or rotating are called:
superimposable
what is an enantiomer
2 stereoisomers which are mirror images & non-superimposable, ex. hands
describe stereoisomers
same molec. form./sequence of atoms but differ. 3-D orient.
Describe enantiomer
one type of stereoisomer, nonsuperimposable mirror images
Which sugar has 5 C and 3-H on the left & 3-OH on the right?
D-ribose
D-Glucose is derived from which 3-C sugar?
D-Arabinose
On which Carbon does alpha-D-Glucose and Galactose differ in the OH-H molecule arrangement? Is H up or down on Glucose?
1, which H in up position on the glucose
What are Hemiacetals and hemiketals?
Hemiacetals and hemiketals from alcohol + aldehydes or + ketones respectively
How are enantiomer prefixes 'D-' or 'L- determined? according to the handedness of the chiral carbon atom that is farthest from the carbonyl
from handedness of the chiral carbon atom (C5 in hexose) farthest from the carbonyl (if OH on Left, then L/vice versa)
Describe Fisher vs Haworth projection
Fisher: 2 dimension molecule representation
Haworth: Ring structure
describe anomer
sugar which differs only at hemiacetal or hemiketal C (anomeric C (C1)) designated as α and β.
How is alpha and beta determined on carb.
Haworth: with the OH at the anomeric C1:
α (OH below the ring)
β (OH aBove the ring).
Fischer, α if anomeric (C1 or C2) -OH on same side as the -OH of highest # asymmetric C (C-5 for hexoses)
β: if opposite sides, –OH at C-1 and C-5 in diff direction
Which 3 acids can Aldoses be oxidized as?
Aldonic acids: aldehyde converted to carboxyl gr (gluc –gluconic acid)
Uronic acids: alcohol at the is oxid to COOH (ex.Gluc --> glucuronic acid)
Saccharic acids(glycaric acids): oxidation at both ends
1. Which enz converts glucose to gluconic acid? 2. Other product in reaction?
1. Glucose oxidase
2. Hydrogen peroxide
Explain basis for measurement of urinary glucose
During glucose oxidation, addition of peroxidase and o-dianisidine forms yellow color in presence of glucose
What happens if Solution of cupric ion, Cu2+ is added to sugar
produce reducing sugar -->
aldehyde gr is oxidized
what type of linkage is in all polymers of monosaccharides?
glycosidic bonds
What is an acetal linkage?
anomeric sugar carbon is condensed with an alcohol, amine or thiol
What is a glycoside?
glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond.
name 4 type of glycoside bond based on atom bound to
1. O
2. C
3. S
4. N
1. O-glycoside bond
2.C-glycoside bond
3.a thioglycoside bond
4. a glycosylamine bond
Name 2 modified monosaccharides frequently expressed on cell surface
fucose
acetylgalactosamine
Name 3 disaccharides, constituents, type on bound
Sucrose (gluc-fruct) --> 1,2B
Lactose (gluc-galac) -->1,4@
Maltose (glu-glu) --> 1,4@
Which group of enz catalyse oligosacch. synthesis?
Glycosyltransferases, catalyze formation of glycosidic bounds, each enz sugar-specific
what nucleotide is an important intermediate in sacc. formation processes
UDP-glucose
Name 3 common STORAGE homoglycans & bond types
1. Amylose (1-4α)
2.Amylopectin α(1-4) &
α(1-6) branches
3. Glycogen α(1-4) &
α(1-6) branches
Name 2 common STRUCTURAL homoglycans & bond types
1. Cellulose β(1-4)
2. Chitin β(1-4)
What determines type of stucture in polysacch?
α bonds form bent chain good for storage
β bonds form straight chain good for structure
Can mammels digest cellulose?
Why or why not?
Lack cellulases, thus cannot digest wood/veg fibers
Bacteria can hydrolyze in the rumen
What is the molecular difference between D-Glu and D-Mannose?
at C2, OH is R for glu and L for Man
Name 3 aldohexoses
Glu, mannose, galactose
Name 1 ketohexose
Fructose (C3 has OH on the L)
Name on modified monosacharride with L configuration
β-L-fucose
Where would you find Chitin?
Shelf of shrimps
What are glycoaminoglycans
Repeating disaccharide units made of hexose +
amino sugar, glucosamine or galactosamine
At least one as neg charged S or Carboxyl gr.
Name 2 glycoaminoglycans (anionic polysaccharides)
Heparin and hyaluronate
What is unique about hyaluronate vs. other glycoaminoglycans
1. Only GAG non-sulfunated
2. Forms in plasma
3. found in extra cellular matrix, especially when load bearing joint
ABO Blood typing is based on addition of which two sugar molecules to RBC antigens?
A: addtion of acetylglucosamine (GluNAc)
B: Galactose
to O antigen made of oligosacc.
During glycosyl moiety biosynthesis, how many sugar residue need to link before it can transfer onto protein?
14