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108 Cards in this Set

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interiors of jovian planets
-H & He
-no solid surface
-interior layers defined by phase
-temp / pressure / density increase w. depth
-jupiter's core 5x denser than earth
jupiter & saturn's H
H exists in liquid and metallic form bc of high pressure
uranus and neptune rich in
H - compounds
(ice giants)

-accreted slowly
-less time to capture gas before clearing of solar nebula
jovian cores
rock, metal, h-compounds

10x mass of earth
jovians w. large internal heat sources:
Jupiter (still contracting)
Saturn (helium rain)
Neptune

---EMIT AS MUCH hEAT as they receive from the sun
Jupiter's atmosphere comp.
75% H
24% He
1% H-compounds
Galileo (probe) measured Jupiter's atmospheric structure:
thermosphere (absorb solar x-rays)

stratosphere (absorb solar UV)

troposphere (GHG's trap heat from sun and jupiter)

*same layer types as earth's atmosphere*
jupiter's weather due to?
convection in troposphere
Jupiter's clouds?
ammonia, ammonia hydrosulfide, & water

all condense at diff temps so the clouds form at diff altitudes
jupiter's rotation
RAPID (10hrs)

many circulating cells in atmosphere
jupiter's "zones"
warm air rises

ammonia cools / condenses
--> bright clouds
-snow NH3
jupiter's "belts"
deep, warm, darker levels in atmosphere
jupiter:
visible light v IR light
higher, bright clouds (of zones) are cold ---= dark in IR light

-deeper, darker belts are warm (emit IR heat) - brighter in IR
moons of saturn
-bright
-icy
-NH3

-TITAN - large, thick atmosphere

-lapetus - one icy side, one black side
titan (of saturn)
thick n2, CH4 atmosphere
-ethane rain
-some organic solids rain out
moons of uranus
dark / icy

dirty w carbon
triton (of neptune)
the BACKWARDS moon

N2 geysers
jupiter's moons and geologic activity
geologic activity increases with degree of tidal heating

Io= volcanos
europa=ocean under ice
ganymede
callisto= iceball
jupiter's small moons
prob captured planetesimals
-eccentric, inclined orbits
-some orbit backwards
-most in orbit "families"

-the 4 that orbit close to jupiter prob formed in jupiters mini-nebula
jovian rings
-seperately orbiting particles
-all jovian's have rings
-all are w/i roche zone
-ring particles constantly lost (collision, drag from exospheres)
roche zone
1.5 - 3 radii from each planet's center

-tides rip apart moonlets
-prevent moons from reforming
how are rings replenished?
small moons supply dust to the rings
ring particles are in orbital resonance
(clumps and gaps created by small moons)
shepherd moons
confine ring particles between them

making narrow rings


(aka the tiny moons w/i a planet's ring system)
Galilean Moons
Io
Europa
Ganymede
Callisto
Io
rocky

most volcanically active world

colorful
--red & yellow sulfur
--dark volcanic flows
--SO2 frost

NO impact craters
-active / youthful surface
-very warm interior

-tectonics & erosion
-tidal heating
Europa
ice + rock

subsurface ocean

-few impact craters - young surface
-surface squeezed, pulled, cracked by tides
(cold brittle ice seperates, hot buoyant ice rises)
Ganymede
icy

past faulting --- surface no longer geologically active

bright regions = younger (fewer craters)
dark regions = older
Callisto
icy

heavily cratered

geologically dead (no tectonics or volcanism)

smooth dark stuff formed by sublimation / erosion (sublimation of co2 ice leaves dirt behind)

only partially differentiated

no internal magnetic field

probable salty ocean
tidal heating of Io
tidal heating keeps Io hot

-jupiter's gravity stretches Io making tidal bulges
-bulges grow when Io's closer shrink when further
---THIS FLEXING generates heat
--melts rock, powers volcanos
synchronous rotation
caused by tides
galilean moons in orbital resonance
inner 3 in orbital resonance
(one objects orbital peiod ratio of another orbital period)

-2 objects orbits periodically line up
- keeps their orbits eccentric
--- causes tidal heating

-callisto's not in resonance = no tidal heating
europa's interior
europa is differentiated (gravity data)

europa has salty ocean (magnetic data)

europa still geologically active (geologic data)

ice layer may be warm enough for ice to convect
could europa support life?
enough water

energy source = tidal heating

chemistry = CHNOPS (elements of life) are common
ganymede's interior
ganymede is differentiated (gravity data)

has its own magnetic field

internal salty ocean
icy moons
ice close to melting point so can flow easily

thin brittle lithospheres (more deformation than rocky worlds... thicker lithospheres in terrestrial planets -- rock can flow but must be deeper in interior)
"NEAR" mission
to an asteroid
"meteor"
trail of light caused by particle that enters earth's atmosphere

-most are pea sized and burn up in earth's atmosphere
"meteorite"
rock that survives its fall to earth

different elements and isotopes tell us they're not from earth
types of meteorites?
primitive meteorites

processed meteorites
primitive meteorites
solar system's oldest material

accreted from solar nebula

-stony (contains rocky minerals, some metals)

-carbon-rich (contains carbon compounds & h20)
processed meteorites
younger

-from differentiated asteroids

-metallic (from differentiated core)

-stony (mantle like or crust like (basalt volcanism)
asteroid composition
determined by reflectance spectroscopy

1.carbon rich
2.rocky
3.metal rich
carbon rich asteroids
dark

in outer regions of main belt

similer to carbon rich primitive meteorites
rocky asteroids
brighter

inner regions of main belt

similar to stony meteorites
metal-rich asteroids
rich in iron

rare

similar to metallic meteorites
meteorites that don't come from asteroids...
ejected from large impacts to moon or mars

--surface rocks ejected above escape velocity
--later fall to earth

(mars meteorite seems to have evidence for life)
meteorites falling to earth
30-60% meteorites mass lost to ablation in earth's atmosphere

-biggest = 60 tons (size of small car)

-don't contain elements that aren't already present in terrestrial rocks ... but can form different types of compounds
some asteroids underwent differentiation
largest had volcanism
asteroid - meteorite connection
primitive meteorites from unprocesssed asteroids

metallic meteorites from processed cores of disrupted asteroids

rocky meteorites from processed mantle or crust of disrupted large asteroids
history of an iron meteorite
iron formed in supernova explosions

some iron incorperated into our solar nebula

rock and metal condensed as nebula cooled

particles accreted

differentiation seperated rock and metal

collisions shattered the world

orbital resonances nudged fragments into collision course w earth

iron meteorite falls to earth
parts of a comet
nucleus

coma

tail
comet's nucleus
icy object (dirty snowball)
comet's coma
its 'atmosphere' of gas / dust
comet's tail
gas and dust blown away from coma (its atmosphere)
comet near sun
v
away from sun
far from sun = cold icy nucleus

near sun = warms up
-forms coma and tails
comet tail parts?
plasma tail

dust tail

debris
comet's plasma tail
ionized gas blown away from sun by solar wind
comet's dust tail
small particles pushed by small pressure of sunlight
comet debris
larger particles along orbit path

(AKA METEOR SHOWERS)
birth of comet
kuiper belt:
-short period comets
-forward orbits

oort cloud:
-long period comets
-random orbits (forward or backward)
fates of comets
-loses ice & disintigrates or becomes inactive

-ejected from solar system by jupiter

-crash into sun or planetary body
brownlee particles
captured by aircraft in stratosphere

caught on gel

porous, loosely bound particles

*comet remains!!* (lost ice, rocky bits left behind)

-drift to earth, not recognized on ground
"stardust" mission
has collected dust directly from a comet
meteor showers
thousands of "shooting stars" in a night

-when earth passes thru debris of a comet

-bright streaks caused when dust burns up in our atmosphere

-biggest showers:
---perseids
---leonids
pluto
moon = Charon

comp = ice and some rock

very elliptical orbit

never visited by spacecraft

"dwarf planet"
pluto planet like characteristics
larger than most comets
pluto comet like characteristics
mostly made of ice

-has short tail when closer to sun

-very elliptical orbit

-not in ecliptic plane
Quaoar, Xena, & Eris
kuiper belt objects

-eris bigger than pluto!

-many KBO's are similar in comp to pluto
-pluto is probably just a large KBO
meteorite bump v boom
bump:
-small meteorites slow 100s m/s

boom:
-massive meteorites don't fully decelerate & retain their velocity
--make craters and can change global climate
different impacter sizes:
1-10mm = meteor

1m = fireball / meteorite

40-60m = tunguska airburst / meteor crater

1 km = regional devastation (deep impact)

10 km = mass extinction (K-T event)
K-T boundary layer
rich in:
-iridium
-shocked minerals
-soot
continental crust
lower density rock
---- Granite

older (up to 4 by)
oceanic crust
higher density rock
---- Basalt

younger (up to 200 My)

-created by volcanism at mid-ocean ridges

-subducts under continental crust during collisions

-melts / erupts to form continental crust's volcanos
why does earth have plate tectonics?
convection in mantle drives plate motions

lithosphere is thin

water lubricates plates (allows motion and melting)
good friday earthquake
largest to hit N america

9.2 on richter scale

tsunami formed

only 131 died due to low pop
most volcanos?
subduction zones
most earthquakes?
result of plate movements
most erosion?
regions of mtn building
the word "volcano"
romans thought happened from vulcan (god of fire)
most active volcanos in US
alaska
shield volcano
shallow sloped

often caldera on top

LOW viscocity lava
strata & composite volcanos
steep sides

more viscous lava

lots of explosive products (ash / rock)

-don't erupt often but more damaging when they do
cinder cone volcanos
rel. steep sides

"frothy" lava (called cinder

built up by explosive eruptions
lava dome volcanos
viscous lava builds rel. steep sides

can be very explosive
what comes out of volcanos?
gases

bombs

blocks

lapilli

ash

lava

obsidian

pumice
flood basalt lava
massive amts released at fissures (cracks)
pahoehoe lava
ropey
A'a lava
rocky appearance
what can kill u?
gasses (nuee ardente)
tsunami
eartquake
falling rock
ash flows
mud flows
poisones gasses
the krakatoa tsunami
volcanic island exploded in S. pacific

-explosion heard >2000 miles away

-ash reached NY

-energy of 10 atomic bombs

-120 feet tall
-killed 36,000 people
mt saint helens eruption
largest recent eruption in US

had been dormant for >100yrs

seismic activity and rising bulge were indicators

57 deaths(mostly from debris/mud flows)

renewed activity recently
volcano's effect on climate
gas and dust added instantly
-increase albedo
--not just local effect

-GHG's emmited

-sulfur compounds emmitted causing acid rain

long term volcanic outgassing
volcano's good?
formed earth's crust and atmosphere

cools earth's interios

makes islands

adds to continents

fertile soil

building materials

geothermal energy

origin of life?
rate of erosion on earth?
-thick atmosphere
-distance from sun
-active tectonics
-quick rotation

MEAN LOTS OF EROSION

-water erosion
-glacier erosion
-wind erosion
earth atmospheric comp
78% N2

21% O2

1% other
earth retained enough h2o for oceans...
earth's cool enough to avoid the runaway greenhouse
earth's little co2 in atmospher?
earth's co2 dissolved into oceans forming carbonate rock
earth has so much more o2
photosynthesis from life creates o2 from co2
earth's UV absorbing stratosphere?
ozone (o3) is created from o2, which comes from life

(O2 + UV = O3)

O3, which was created by life, makes surface safe for life
ozone depletion
-ozone hole over antarctica
-appears in spring

CFC's cause of ozone hole
-UV breaks down CFC's
--creates chlorine gas
---destroys o3
(reaction is faster in lower temps- antarctica)

-mars has no ozone
--no organics there

-if UV increased
--increased cancer and genetic mutations
slowed ozone depletion
CFC's in US phased out

treated adopted

(if no action was taken depletion would be @ 20%)
co2 cycle

and regulation?
co2 dissolves in oceans and forms carbonate rocks

plate tectonics releases co2 back into atmosphere

oceans + tectonics regulate amt of co2 in atmosphere

REGULATION:
-too cold
(less co2 dissolves in cold ocean water -- more builds in atmosphere -- more GH warming)
-too hot
(more co2 dissolves in warm ocean water -- less build up in atmosphere -- less GH warming)
*takes 400,000yrs to restore balance)
"snowball earth"
extreme cooling - ice ages

feedback: more snow = more albedo
"hot house earth"
triggered by 'snowball earth'

-oceans frozen over = increased co2 in atmosphere (bc volcanism continues)
=strong GH warming
earth's surface temp over past 50yrs
avg surface temp risen .5*C

begins at start of industrial rev.
long term consequences of global warming
increased evaporation from oceans = more intense storms

raise sea level
flood coasts
change ocean currents

effects on ecosystems
life on earth
appeared 3.5 bya

organic molecules form easily

life could have come from meteorites from mars

life first lived in hot springs or near mid ocean ridges
-used chemical reactions for energy (not sunlight)

-rise of oxygen in earth's atmosphere
--o2 reacted chemically w rocks
--o2 started accumulating in atmosphere ~2bya
--land became safe for life when ozone developed
--cambrien explosion of life ~500Mya