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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Many of today's CPUs can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle.
This cycle is comprised of four basic operations - fetching, decoding, executing, and storing.
machine cycle or instruction cycle
Programmers use these instructions to program a PROM chip.
A small piece of semi-conducting material, usually no bigger than one-half-inch square, on which integrated circuits are etched.
Another component of the CPU. It performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations.
arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
A microscopic pathway capable of carrying electrical current.
integrated circuit
A small lever or screw that facilitates the installation and removal of processor chips.
zero-insertion force (ZIF) socket
Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer.
central processing unit or processor
The time it takes the control unit to execute and store an instruction.
execution time (e-time)
One component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer.
control unit
An open area inside the system unit in which additional equipment can be installed.
Each integrated circuit can contain millions of these elements, which act as electronic switches that open or close the circuit for electronic signals.
This brand of Intel processor is ideal for workstations and low-end servers.
Xeon or Itanium
A box-like case that houses the electronic components of the computer used to process data.
system unit or chassis
The smallest unit of data a computer can represent.
bit or binary digit
The main circuit board in the system unit.
motherboard or system board
Less expensive, basic PCs use this brand of Intel processor.
Each channel along which bits are transferred, called a(n) __________, allows the various devices inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other.
Most high-performance PCs use this processor.
These chips are much faster than DRAM chips because they are synchronized to the system clock.
Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM)
The CPU contains high-speed storage locations that temporarily hold data and instructions.
The number of bits the CPU can interpret and execute at a given time.
word size
Each tick of the system clock is called a(an)...
clock cycle
The process of copying items from RAM to a storage device such as a hard disk.
The CPU begins executing a second instruction before it completes the first instruction.
Unlike a serial port, this port is an interface that connects devices by transferring more than one bit at a time.
parallel port
The CPU relies on a small chip to synchronize, or control the timing of, all computer operations.
system clock
Helps speed the processes of a computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data.
memory cache or Cache store or RAM cache
The speed at which a processor executes instructions.
clock speed or clock rate
A blank ROM chip on which items can be placed permanently.
programmable read-only memory (PROM)
On a personal computer, all functions of the processor usually are on a single chip called...
A coding scheme capable of representing all the world's current languages.
The time it takes the control unit to fetch and decode an instruction.
intruction time (I-time)
One type of expansion card, which is a communications device, that enables computers to communicate via telephone lines or other means.
modem card or internal card
These chips are a type of RAM that must be re-energized constantly or they lose their contents.
Dynamic RAM or DRAM
A thin credit card-sized device that adds memory, disk drives, sound, fax/modem, communications, and other capabilities to a mobile computer such as a notebook computer.
PC Card
A small circuit board that plugs into the motherboard, often to add additional capabilities to the motherboard.
The component in the system unit that converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power.
power supply
When eight bits are grouped together as a unit.
A feature of PC Cards and flash memory cards which allows devices to be added and removed while a computer is running.
hot plugging or hot swapping
A method known as __________ uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program, speeding processor times.
parallel processing
The interface, or point of attachment, of an external device to the system unit.
A number system that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1.
binary system
One type of interface that connects a device to the system unit by transmitting data one bit at a time.
serial port
A temporary storage place for data, instructions, and information.
An opening, or socket, where a circuit board can be inserted into the motherboard.
expansion slot
Memory chips that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices.
RAM (random access memory)
Because bays most often hold disk drives, these spaces commonly are called __________.
drive bays
The role of memory to store both data and programs.
stored program concept
A(n) __________, which can be a peripheral or a chip, creates sound from digital instructions.
Because a heat sink consumes a lot of room, a smaller device cools processors in notebook computers.
heat pipe
Joins a cable to a device.
A small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and ventilates heat produced by electrical components.
heat sink
The size of a bus, called the __________, determines the number of bits that the computer can transmit at one time.
bus width
Users running engineering, scientific, or graphics applications will notice a dramatic increase in speed in applications that take advantage of this.
floating-point coprocessor
A type of bus that allows the processor to communicate with peripheral devices.
expansion bus
Today's processors use this technology, which is a set of instructions built into the processor that allows it to manipulate and process multimedia data more efficiently.
MMX (multimedia extensions)
An expansion card that converts computer output into a video signal sent through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen.
video card or video adapter or graphic card
Human speech is __________, because it uses continuous signals that vary in strength and quality.
ROM chips, called __________, contain permanently written data, instructions, or information.
A special processor chip or circuit board that assists the processor in performing specific tasks. It also increases the performance of a computer.
Stores configuration information about the computer, such as the type of disk drives, keyboard, and monitor; the current date and time; and other startup information needed when the computer is turned on.
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory or CMOS
These chips are faster and more reliable than any variation of DRAM chips.
Static RAM or SCRAM
The computer automatically can configure cards and other devices as they are installed.
Plug and Play
Most computers are __________, meaning that they recognize only two discrete states: on and off.
A device used to join two connectors that are either both female or both male.
gender changer
The amount of time it takes a processor to read data, instructions, and information from memory.
Access time
An expansion card that enhances the sound-generating capabilities of a personal computer by allowing sound to be input through a microphone and output through speakers.
sound card
Some external peripheral devices such as an external modem or tape drive have a(n) __________, which is an external power supply.
AC adapter
__________ refers to memory chips storing data that only can be read.
Read-only memory (ROM)