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44 Cards in this Set

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What are the five theories on why we sleep?
1. Restorative theory
2. Energy Conservation theory
3. Memory consolidation
4. Synaptic neuronal network integration
5. Thermoregulation
Sleep staging relies completely on what?
EEG
When someone is awake, how does their EEG appear?
Desynchronized
What do you begin to see in stage one of sleep?
Alpha waves
What movement can you see in stage one of sleep?
Hypnic myoclonus
What is characteristic of stage two sleep?
1. Sleep spindles
2. K complexes
What characterizes stages three and four of sleep.
Low frequency, high voltage waves(Delta waves)in sleep.
How do stages three and four differ?
The percentage of predominant delta waves.
What are some of the characteristics of REM sleep?
1. Paralyzed
2. Rapid eye movement
3. 80% of dreaming
4. Desynchronized brain activity
Is sleep an active or passive process?
Active
Which type of sleep predominates in the early night? Late night?
1. Slow wave sleep
2. REM sleep
How long is an average sleep cycle?
90 minutes
Is our sleep architecture static throughout life?
No as we age the architecture becomes more broken - not consistent.
Neonates spend how much time in REM sleep? Six year olds?
1. 50%
2. 25%
How much sleep does the average adult require?
7.5 to 8 hours
How much is the average American sleep deprived?
1.5 hours
What controls circadian sleep rhythms?
SCN
When do you see the maximum circadian sleep effect?
2-5 and and 2-5 pm
What is the defect in advanced sleep phase?
Go to sleep too early and wake up too early.
What is the deect in delayed sleep phase?
Go to sleep too late and sleep in too late
After sleep deprivation, where does one make up most of their sleep. What usually only makes up half of its deficit?
1. NREM
2. REM
Dreams in NREM or REM sleep are more bizarre?
REM
What is a theory on why we dream?
Solidify and maintain neural networks
What area of the CNS is responsible for keeping us awake? What is it called?
1. Pons to midbrain
2. Reticular activating system
What happens if the RAS is lesioned above the superior colliculus?
Coma
Is coma sleep?
No
Where are the neurons responsible for NREM sleep located?
1. Preoptic area of the hypothalamus
2. Basal forebrain
3. NTS
Difficulty falling asleep is called?
Insomnia
What are abnormal activities or behavior during sleep called?
Parasomnia
What is difficulty staying awake called?
Narcolepsy
What is the perception of sleep in insomnia?
That the sleep you got - regardless of how much - was inadequate.
What are the three extrinsic causes for insomnia?
1. Poor sleep hygiene
2. Drugs, meds or alcohol
3. Enviromental causes
What are five non-pharmacological treatments for insomnia?
1. Relaxtion
2. Stimulus control
3. Sleep restriction therapy
4. Sleep hygiene
5. Chrono and phototherapy
Name four pharmological treatments for insomnia.
1. Hypnotics
2. Tricyclics
3. Antihistamines
4. Melatonin
Is narcolepsy a disease or a symptom of many conditions?
Disease
What is the marker for narcolepsy?
HLA association
What are the four cardinal features of naroclepsy?
1. Excessive daytime sleepiness
2. Cataplexy
3. Sleep paralysis
4. Hypnagogic hallucinations
What is obstructive sleep apnea a result of?
Paralysis of the pharyngeal muscles
What are two examples of abnormal movement disorders seen during sleep?
1. Restless leg syndrome
2. Periodic limb movements off sleep
How can a seizure affect sleep?
One seizure during the night can destroy your sleep architecture.
What is a disorder where you have 16-18 hours of restorative sleep followed by ravenous hunger?
Klein-Levin syndrome
What disease is characterized by both insomnia and dysautonomia?
Fatal familial insomnia
What disorder involves acting out your dreams?
REM behavior disorder
In a multiple sleep latency test, if you fall alseep quickly two out of five times, what can you be diagnosed with?
Narcolepsy