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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a drug?
any substance that modifies or alters a function or a living organism
forms of drugs:
tablets which are compressed material
enteric coated which is
coated so it won't irritate stomach
capsules
lonzenges/troches
suspensions
syrups
elixer
ointments (petroleum)
ticnture (alcohol based)
suppositories (solids that disolve at body temp)
sustained action
dissoves over time
what else?
sustained action
transdermal patch
spray/arrosols
nasal or inhaled
major routes of admin are ...
oral
sublingual (under tongue)
buccal (inside cheek)
rectal
vaginal
inhalation
parenteral ...has 4 kinds:

intredermal
subcutaneous
intramuscular
intravenous
drug metabolism:

from time drug enters untill all of it...
all its products have been eliminated from the body
consists of 4 steps:
absorption
distribution
biotransformation
exrection
absorption is
taken into bloodsteam
what are the factors of concern here?
how well it dissolves
condition of site of absorption
route:
skin is slow
PO is slow
resp/mucus membrane fast
IV is the fastest
IM/SQ depends of site
distribution:
moves into various fluids/tissues
factors:
body size
circulation
degree to w/h drug binds to protein
dedication that binds w/ protein becomes....
inactive
biotransformation:

chemical process breaks down the drug into substances that the body can remove
factors:
ability of body to modify chemical structure of drug
liver function
excretion:
drug is removed by various body systmes:
renal
pulmonary
integumentary
gastroientestinal
etc
factors influencing action/effectiviness:
age
weight
gender (because men have more muscle)
disease
route
body temp (fever increases metabolism rate/burns drug up)
circadian rhythms (your 24 hour biorythem, all plants & animals have it)means one day
interactions
what 2 kinds of interactions can you have with drugs?
antogonistic

synergistic or potentiation
drug reactions:
expected effects: desired action
side effects: predictable, but not specific, desired effect
what is an adverse reaction?
adverse is harmful side effect
what is an idiosyncratic reaction?
unusual, unexpected
what is an allergy reaction?
immune reactions range from:
mild ... rash/hives
anaphylaxis
shock
bronchial constriction
edema of mouth/throat
terminology:
what is pharmocodynamics?
study of drug actions at the biochemical and physioligical level
what is pharmacokinetics?
study of how drugs enter the body, reach a site of action, and are removed.
there are 3 things that help determine how the drug will work?
route
frequency
dose
Bioavailability:

proportion of a drug available to produce effects
half life:
length of time taken to decrease blood concentration by half
oneset means ...
when actions starts
what does the peak mean?
when drug is at its strongest
what is a drug duration?
how long action lasts
serum level:

concentration in blood stream
tolerance is :

decreased response to drug/dose
cumulative:

occurs when drug stays in blood longer than ...
expected

(liver/kidney disease)
drug laws

1906: pure food & drug act
1914: Harrison Narcotic act
1938: Food,Drug,Cosmetic act
1070: ...
controlled substance act
controlled substances: 5 scheduled. whats the most dangerous of all?
schedule 1 is high potential for abuse, no acceptable medical use
schedule II is
hi potential for abuse
acceptable medical use
schedule III
may cause dependence
less prone to abuse than I & II
medically accepted
scheduled IV is whaT?
may cause mild dependence phys. and psyc. and medically accepted
schedule V :
limited potential for mild physical or psycological dependence
medically accepted
drug names:
chemical: according to chemical composition
what is the genereic name?
name of drug no matter who makes it
Aspirian
brand name is like Bayer, Advil
pregnancy categories:

5 categories:
A B C D X
A is w/o risk

X means causes fetal abnormalities
teratogen means?
harmful to fetuses
sources of drugs are ...
animal
plant
minerals
synthetic
6 rights of medication administration?
right patient
right drug
right dose
right route
right time
right ???????????????????/
ac
ad lib
bid
c
cap
fld
gtt
h
IV
NS
OD
OU
OS
p
pc
PO
prn
qd
qh
q3h
qhs
qid
qod
qs
s - without
ss - half
susp - suspension
tab
tid
tinc
ung- ointment
there are actions/uses:
analgesic:
action: relieves pain
use: post op, trauma, etc
what is a sedative for?
action: decreases anxiety
use: panic attacks, general anxiety
antipretic is for ?
action: decreases fever
use: infection, illness
whats an anacid for?
action: decrases stomach acid
use: peptic ulcer disease
whats a laxative for?
action: stumulates bowel movemment
uses: constipation caused by narcotic use
what is antidiarrheic:
action: stimulates bowel mov.
uses: food poisioning
anti-inflamatory:
action: decrease inflamation
use: degenerative joint disease
whats a laxative for?
action: stumulates bowel movemment
uses: constipation caused by narcotic use
what is antidiarrheic:
action: stimulates bowel mov.
uses: food poisioning
anti-inflamatory:
action: decrease inflamation
use: degenerative joint disease