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22 Cards in this Set

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Byzantine Empire
In 330 AD, the Roman Empire was split into two parts. The eastern portion, centered in Asia Minor and the Balkans, became known as the Byzantine Empire, and at its height included southern Spain, North Africa, Egypt, Syria, and Palestine.
Cyrillic
The alphabet used for Russian and other Slavic languages.
Isolation
Separation from others; for example, a remote village in a mountain region or a group of pygmies in a rain forest are said to be isolated.
Russification
Wherever Russia conquered non-Russian people, they were forced to adopt the Russian religion, culture, and language to create a sense of unity as a nation.
Czar
Emperor or supreme leader; used in particular to describe the leader of Russia; from the Latin Caesar; also spelled tsar.
Absolutism
A government in which an individual has total control and exercises power over all others. Often used to define the power of a Tsar, Emperor, King, or Queen, as in an absolute monarchy.
Peter The Great
Russian Czar (1682-1725) who brought western European technology and culture to Russia in an effort to modernize the nation.
Westernization
The process of developing and changing toward the economic, social, and/or political ways of the West, that is, the Western European allies and the United States.
Warm Water Port
A seaport that does not freeze up, allowing year-round use.
Catherine the Great
Russian Czarina (1762-1796) who maintained absolute control over Russia's government while continuing modernization introduced by Peter the Great.
Serf
A member of the lowest feudal class in medieval Europe, bound to the land and owned by a lord.
Bloody Sunday
Occurred in 1905 when Russian palace guards loyal to the czar fired into a crowd of protesting workers, peasants, and sailors of the imperial navy. Further unrest led to some concessions by the Czar, such as the formation of a parliament, called the Duma, and promises to grant civil liberties.
Lenin, Nikolai
Leader of the Bolsheviks during the 1917 Russian Revolution; he believed the proletariat, that is, the workers and peasants, should overthrow the totalitarian regime of czarist Russia. His economic policies combined some elements of capitalism and socialism. He was premier of Russia until his death in 1924.
Marx, Karl
Co-author of The Communist Manifesto, suggesting that history can be explained by the struggle of classes as viewed through the economic events of any time period.
Bolsheviks
The Russian communists under the leadership of Lenin who ended czarist rule in 1917.
Bolsevik Revolution
In Russia, the communist takeover in November 1917 led by Lenin.
Totalitarianism
A system of government by a dictator or a one-party dictatorship that regulates every aspect of citizens' lives.
NEP - New Economic Policy
Lenin's New Economic Policy established in 1921 in the Soviet Union. It combined elements of capitalism (peasants could sell their surplus crops on the open market after giving some to the government) and socialism (state control of finance, transportation, and industry). Stalin ended the program in 1928.
USSR
The abbreviation for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Soviet Union, in which Russia was the central power; from 1917-1991, under a communist form of government.
Communism
A system of government in which a single, totalitarian, party holds power. It is characterized by state control of the economy, and restriction on personal freedoms. It was first proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto.
Czar Nicholas II
(1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution’s leadership.
Marx, Karl
(1818-1883), German political philosopher and writer. Coauthor with Friedrich Engels of The Communist Manifesto which described the new philosophy of scientific socialism, which is the basis for modern communism