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26 Cards in this Set

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Alexander I
1. succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered, and ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. In the first half of his ruling Alexander tried to introduce liberal reforms whilst in the second half he turned to a much more arbitrary manner of conduct, which led to the abolishing of many early reforms.
Alexander II
2.
Had Emancipation Reform of 1861 based on Tsar's Emancipation Manifesto which The Manifesto granted the full rights of free citizens to serfs and prescribed that peasants would be able to buy the land from the landlords.
Nicholas I
3. (1825–55)
- all powerful
- killed in the CRIMEAN WAR, near black sea (this war was over routes to through black sea to meditteranean)
- relieved blatic states of serfdon but not the rest of russia because the elite depended on them
Nicholas II
4.
Half Danish Emperor of Russia
- He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by Bolsheviks.
Catherine II the Great
5. (1762-96)
-Access to the throne
• Enlightened Absolutism. State-building
• Administrative reform: Devolving power
• Welfare reform: Education and health
• Attempts at a Law Code
• Peasant uprisings
• Relations to ‘society’. Legacy
• The Challenge of 1789
-----
-recommended liberal, humanitarian political theories for use as the basis of government reform and the formulation of a new legal code.
-German-born empress of Russia (1762–96), who led her country into full participation in the political and cultural life of Europe, carrying on the work begun by Peter the Great
-(1785) edict issued by the Russian empress Catherine II the Great that recognized the corps of nobles in each province as a legal corporate body and stated the rights and privileges bestowed upon its members. The charter accorded to the gentry of each province and county in Russia
Vladimir Lenin
6. Lenin worked for some years in Samara, Russia, then in 1893 moved to St Petersburg. Rather than settling into a legal career, he became more involved in revolutionary propaganda efforts and the study of Marxism.
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• Russia is already capitalistic

• To reach Communism, Russia needs two revolutions:
• The Bourgeois
• The Socialist

• “Trade union consciousness” vs. “Socialist
consciousness”

• The Party as vanguard

• A party of professional revolutionaries
Peter I the Great
7. ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V. Peter carried out a policy of "Westernization" and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power.
- ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V. Peter carried out a policy of "Westernization" and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power.
- ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V. Peter carried out a policy of "Westernization" and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power.
- Founded St. Petersburg after he recaptured the area from Swedish rule
Petr Stolypin
8. served as Nicholas II's Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) from 1906 to 1911. He became known for his heavy-handed attempts to battle revolutionary groups and for instituting the agrarian reform.
Leon Trotskii
9. was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist
-Following a power struggle with Joseph Stalin in the 1920s, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union. He was eventually assassinated in Mexico by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent.
-Communist theorist and agitator, a leader in Russia's October Revolution in 1917 and later commissar of foreign affairs and of war in the Soviet Union (1917–24).
Emancipation of the Serfs
1. The reform amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by Russian peasants.
-Imperial Russia was a land of peasants, which made up 90% of the population. There were two main categories of peasants, those living on state lands and those living on the land of private landowners
Petrine reforms
2. Peter the Great's radical and rapid Westernization of Russia altered the daily life of the upper classes and all high culture. The nobility was made to conform to Western models in its dress, customs, social life, education, and state service; women came out of seclusion; a European calendar was introduced; Russians were sent abroad to study; foreign languages were learned. …
Great Reforms (1860's)
3
Decembrist Rising 1825
4. Inspired with the reformist spirit they had met in Western Europe, a secret society of officers staged the abortive Decembrist Rising of 1825, depicted at right. Braving subzero weather, nearly 3,000 guards mutineers and sympathetic civilians milled about for hours on St. Petersburg's Senate Square. Loyal troops finally fired upon the rebels
1905 Revolution
5. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of both anti-government and undirected violence which swept through vast areas of Russia in 1905. It was not controlled or managed, and it had no single cause or aim, but instead was the culmination of decades of unrest and dissatisfaction stemming from the autocratic rule of the Romanov dynasty and the slow pace of reform in Russian society. The direct cause was the abject failure of the Tsar's military forces in the initially-popular Russo-Japanese War.
----
-Revolution did increase the pace of reform in Russia, but not enough to prevent the second revolution which overturned the Romanovs in 1917.
Stolypin Reforms
6. The goal of the reform was to transform the archaic obshchina form of Russian agriculture which the peasants that were liberated by the emancipation reform of 1861 in Russia remained trapped within. Among the many faults of the obshchina included collective ownership, scattered land allotments based on family size and a stifling level of control by the family elder.

---
the reforms did this:
Development of large-scale individual farming (khutors)
Introduction of agricultural cooperation
Development of agricultural education
Dissemination of new methods of land improvement
Affordable lines of credit for peasants
Creation of an Agrarian Party, to represent the interests of farmers
World War I, Russia in
7
Bolshevik Party
1. The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union.

Bolsheviks were an organization of professional revolutionaries under a strict internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism and quasi-military discipline, who considered themselves as a vanguard of the revolutionary proletariat. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism.[3] The party was founded by Vladimir Lenin, who also led it in the October Revolution.
Orthodox Church
2
Duma
3. State Duma, and endow the Duma with legislative and oversight powers.
-sometimes formally compared to the lower house of a parliament
Serfdom
1
Autocracy
2
Mir (peasant commune)
3
Intelligentsia
4. is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture, encompassing intellectuals and social groups close to them (e.g., artists and school teachers).
Bolshevism/Leninism
5. Bolsheviks were an organization of professional revolutionaries under a strict internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism and quasi-military discipline, who considered themselves as a vanguard of the revolutionary proletariat. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as "Bolshevism"
-The dictatorship of the proletariat is theoretically to be governed by a decentralized system of proletarian direct democracy, in which workers hold political power through local councils known as soviets
Marxism
6. Marxism describes history with his "Five Stages of History" as determined by economics:

The First Stage being Primitive Communism (hunters and gatherers with no private property).

The Second Stage is a Slave Society, where a few people "own" all the land and everyone else has nothing; these people then become slaves working for no money and thus there are no profit motives. Because of this, according to Marx, a revolution will happen.

The Third Stage is Feudalism, where the workers are serfs, not slaves. They earn little money so there is very little profit motive. Eventually a merchant class develops since the serfs cannot handle technological change, but this new class does not fit.

The Fourth Stage is a Free Market Society. This will improve the profit motive because people are working for wages. Laws are made to protect wealth and the wealthy, But, according to Marx, this will only work with Capitalism. He also believed that Capitalism always leads to monopolies and thus the people into poverty; the better the free market works, the sooner it will destroy itself.

The Fifth Stage (and final) is Communism. By now, the whole process stops and the real problem emerges: private property. Eventually the government will wither away and become obsolete.
Narodniki/ Populism
7. Narodniks viewed certain aspects of the past with a dose of nostalgia: resenting the former land ownership system, they objected against the uprooting of peasants from the traditional obshchina (the Russian commune).