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18 Cards in this Set

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Where is the best place to calve beef and dairy cattle in good weather?
On Pasture with no mud.
In poor weather conditions, where is the best place to calve dairy cattle?
well ventilated box stall cleaned (pressure washer/steam cleaner) & disinfected since last calving & bedded with clean straw (note this is rarely done - 70% producers usually add fresh bedding to box stall for each new cow to calve)
In poor weather conditions, where is the best place to calve beef cattle?
wind break, trees or 3 sided shed
Develop a program for a producer to optimize colostral transfer of passive immunity for dairy cattle.
Remove calf and administer colostrum by bottle or esophageal intubation. FEED 2 QUARTS OF COLOSTRUM WITHIN 6 HOURS OF BIRTH, THEN 2 QUARTS COLOSTRUM 12 HOURS LATER
Develop a program for a producer to optimize colostral transfer of passive immunity for beef cattle.
Watch calf and see if it nurses within 12 hours. Focus is on watching calf nurse. Beef cow colostrum usually high quality. If calf is vigorous and appears to have suckled, no intervention needed.
Recommend how to treat a sick dairy calf with failure of transfer of passive immunity or septicemia.
1) isolate calf from other calves (calf hutch)
2) feed diluted colostrum or fresh whole milk until 3 weeks of life
3) broad spectrum parenteral antibiotics for at least 3 days
4) consider whole blood transfusion (>1 L) or commercial plasma products ID-1 Intravenous, Immunodynamics Perry IA 120 ml (5.4 g IgG1) IV twice daily for 3 days = $102 Midwest Animal Blood Services, Inc MI, 500 ml bovine plasma (9 g IgG1) = $90
Recommend how to treat a sick beef calf with failure of transfer of passive immunity or septicemia.
1) isolate cow and calf from other cattle (clean pen)
2) broad spectrum parenteral antibiotics for at least 3 days
3) consider whole blood transfusion
Recommend how to treat a healthy dairy calf with failure of transfer of passive immunity or septicemia.
1) isolate calf from other calves (calf hutch)
2) feed diluted
colostrum or fresh whole milk until 3 weeks of life
3) monitor closely
Recommend how to treat a healthy beef calf with failure of transfer of passive immunity or septicemia.
1) isolate cow and calf from other cattle (clean pen or lot)
2) monitor closely
List the methods to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves
1. serum protein concentration
2. sodium sulfite precipitation test
3. Quick Test Calf IgG Kit
4. serum GGT concentration
5. plasma protein concentration
6. zinc sulfate turbidity test
7. gutaraldehyde coagulation test.
8. radial immunodiffusion
Describe the serum protein concentration test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
determined by refractometry
average calf has 4 g/dL presuckle.
The best screening test.
Cheaper and faster than sodium sulfite precipitation.
Describe the sodium sulfite precipitation test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
add 0.1 ml serum to 1.9 ml of sodium sulfite solution (14, 16, & 18% of anhydrous Na2SO3 or 28, 32, & 36% of Na2SO3.7H2O), shake gently and keep at room temperature. Read at 60 minutes (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977; 170:809-811).
accurate even with hemolysis, semiquantitative, measures gamma globulins only.
An excellent semiquantitative test.
Strongly recommended
Describe the Quick Test Calf IgG Kit to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
(Midland Bioproducts Corp, $5/test) 200 µl serum/plasma/blood mixed with reagent and placed in a well lateral flow immunoassay wait 10 minutes (serum/plasma) or 20 minutes (blood) look for 1 line (OK) or 2 lines (FPT) An excellent but EXPENSIVE test,
Describe the serum GGT concentration test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
determined by automated serum biochemistry.
Not recommended because normal range varies with age
Describe the plasma protein concentration test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
determined by refractometry not as accurate as serum protein concentration.
Not recommended.
Describe the zinc sulfate turbidity test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
add 0.1 ml serum to 6 ml ZnSO4 (solution of 208 mg ZnSO4.7H2O per liter of neutral distilled water - water must be boiled for at least 15 minutes to drive off CO2 before adding ZnSO4), shake gently and keep at room temperature. Read at 60 minutes.
Not as accurate as sodium sulfite precipitation test.
Not recommended.
Describe the gutaraldehyde coagulation test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
Not accurate.
Not recommended.
Describe the radial immunodiffusion test to assess transfer of passive immunity in calves.
the gold standard (Research)
- test must be run overnight (delay in treatment)
- expensive ($3/test)