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85 Cards in this Set

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What are the two recommended methods for testing passive transfer in calves?
Serum protein concentration

sodium sulfite precipitation test
What serum protein concentration signifies FPT?
<5.2 g/dl
What is the treatment for FPT in a dairy calf that is not sick?
Isolate

feed diluted colostrum or whole milk for 3 weeks
Treatment for beef calf with FPT that is not sick
Isolate cow and calf from other cattle and monitor
What is the treatment for a FPT dairy calf thata is sick?
Isolate

Feed diluted colostrum or whole milk for 3 weeks

Broad spectrum antibiotics for at least 3 days

consider whole blood trans or commercial blood prod
What is the treatment for a FPT beef calf that is sick?
Isolate broad spectrum antibiotics for at least three days

consider trans or commercial blood prods
What two drugs are routinely used to treat calf septicemia?
Ceftiofur

Gentamicin
How should you feed a calf with septicemia?
Feed whole milk at 12-15 % body weight per day broken up into three feedings
What are the 6 common causes of diarrhea in calves <21 days old?
enterotoxic E. Coli

rotavirus

coronavirus

Cryptosporidium parvum
salmonella
Nutritional
What is the number one cause of diarrhea in calves > 21 days old?
Coccidia
What are the two important virulence factors for enterotoxigenic E. coli?
K99 antigen

STa toxin
What are the 4 enteric pathogens that have zoonotic potential?
Crypto parvum

salmonella

attatching and effacing E.coli

Giardia
What are the signs of E.coli infection in a calf?
yellow watery diarrhea w/o blood

fecal pH increased

diarrhea starts 12 hours to 4 days of age
What finding gives a definitive diagnosis of E coli as the cause of diarrhea?
Identification of the fimbrial antigen after culture
T/F

Intestinal villi are destroyed during an e.coli infection
false
What are the signs of rotavirus infection in calves?
maldigestive/malabsorptive diarrhea
white/yellow with no blood
usually starts at 4 days
What enteric pathogen of young calves causes intestinal villi to appear chopped off?
Rotavirus
How do you diagnose rotavirus diarrhea in calves?
take a 20-30 gram fecal sample 12-24 hrs after signs and run the following:
1 EM-looks like a wheel
2 Flourescent ab
3.ELISA-identifies group A antigen in feces
4. PCR
What enteric pathogen has the same clinical signs as Rotavirus?
coronavirus but it is longer and more severe
What does a definitive diagnosis of Coronavirus diarrhea have to present?
both presence of virus in feces and characteristic histologic lesions
This virus is shed more during winter and at parturition...
coronavirus
crypt cells can be affected with this enteric pathogen...
coronavirus
This virus affects villus epithelium of SI, LI, and upper respiratoy....
coronavirus
What can be done to decrease viral shedding of coronavirus at parturition?
vac dam in late gestation
This enteric pathogen causes villus atrophy and villus fusion in SI and cryptal hyperplasia...
Cryptosporidium parvum
When is fecal excretion greatest with Crypto?
9-14 days of age
The histological lesions of this enteric pathogen are in the ileum and colonic epithelium and are intracellular but extracytoplasmic...
crypto
What are the clinical signs of crypto?
Malabsorptive diarrhea
-yellow and watery
-MAY have some blood
-usually starts 5-14 days of age and persists for some time
How is Crypto diagnosed in calves?
oocyst conc must be 10^5-10^7 oocysts/ml in feces
or trophozoites/schizonts in intestinal epithelium

and characteristic histologic lesions
What is the pathogenesis of salmonella?
Infective dose depends on strain, age of calf and immune status.

Invasive enteritis of ileum,cecum and colon

seen primarily in calves b/c they are lacking acid in the rumen
What are the signs of salmonella infection in calves?
Malabsorptive/maldigestive diarrhea with
-blood
-mucosal
-tenesmus
also: pyrexia,poor appetite, lethargy,

-signs rarely seen before 5 days of age
How do you diagnose salmonell infection?
fecal culture
-must use special media

PCR on feces

serology
How can you control salmonella infection in calves?
vac dam with salmonella bacterins

vac dams wiwth mutant gram negative bacteria

both can have adverse reactions

feed milk replacer to calves
T/F

overfeeding of milk or milk replacer can cause diarrhea in calves.
false
The signs of infection with this enteric pathogen are the same as salmonella yet they are usually seen after 21 days of life....
coccidiosis
How do you diagnose coccidiosis in calves?
quantitative fecal egg count

usuall > 5000 oocysts /gram

more accurate if done on multiple calves
What is the treatment for coccidiosis in calves?
no agent proven to work
control:
-don't overstock
-don't feed on the ground
-sustained administration of anticoccidial agents:
----Deccox
----Monensin
----amprolium
What are the signs of a Clostridium perfringens type c infection?
death due to hemorrhage usually precedes clinical signs
How do you control and prevent clostridial infections in calves?
vac dam but only if it has been a prob on farm.
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Does coccidia affect the LI or SI ?
large intestine
What is the pathogenesis of a Clostridium infection in calves?
Bacteria adhere to SI villi

multiply and produce Beta toxin (necrotizing)

necrosis and sloughing of enterocytes

toxemia and death
This enteric pathogen of young calves produces loose feces, never really watery diarrhea.....
giardia
How is giardia infection diagnosed in calves?
Motile trophozoites in fecal wet mount

presence of cysts in feces

-must use 33% zinc sulfate solution under centrifugal flotation
What are the 5 treatment goals of calf diarrhea?
1 correct acid base, electrolyte and free water abnormalties
2 provide nutritional support
3 facilitate and repair of damages to intestinal epithelial
4 eliminate/prevent E coli bacteremia
5 decrease number of E. coli bacteria in SI
What are the clinical signs of metabolic acidosis in calves?
progressive CNS depression

decreased suckle reflex

ataxia

recumbency

coma and death
What electrolyte abnormalties can be seen in a calf with diarrhea?
Na and Cl will mildly decrease or remain normal

K will increase
-bradycardia,cardiac arrhytmias are signs of hyperkalemia
What is an appropriate fliud therapy protocol for treating calves with diarrhea?
If hypoglycemic- MILK!!!

All calves >8% dehydrated=IV fluids
>6% dehydrated abd reduced suckle=IV fluids

Oral fluids if suckling reflex is good and IV fluids if reflex is bad
What are the GI manifestations of BVD ?
loose to watery diarrhea, with or w/o blood

fever
decreased feed intake
decreased milk prod
oral erosions(not present in every case, but a classic sign)
What is the pathogenesis of BVD?
direct contact with secretions (nasal,oral,genital)--virus taken up by spleen and LN's--replication--viremia--colonization of GI,respiratory,and repro tracts--virus shed in secretions for up to 10 days
What are the non-GI manifestations of BVD?
Immunosuppression

hemorrhage

fetal disease and death
When in gestation is BVD likely to cause congenital defects in a fetus?
60-180 days
At what point in gestation does infection of BVD cause PV in calves?
BEFORE 125 days
What is the pathogenesis of BVD?
fetus must be exposed in utero to NON-CYTOPATHOGENIC strain of BVD at <125 days of gestation and become PV--calf is then later exposed to an antigenically similar cytopathic strain of BVD virus
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1
What tests are used to diagnose acute BVD and what tissues are needed for each?
1 serum neutralization test
--blood, looking for 4x rise in Ab titer over 4 weeks

2 Flourescent Ab test
--fresh or frozen tissue

3 Immunoperoxidase test
--formalin fixed tissue

4 PCR
--secretions or tissue
What tests are used to diagnose PV BVD?
1 Immunoperoxidase test
--skin biopsy (ear punch)

2 PCR
--serum or whole blood
--needed on two occasions 3-4 weeks apart

3 Antigen capture ELISA
--Serum
What tests are used for group screening of BVD?
pooled PCR and PCR
What is a good vaccination program for protecting against BVD?
Vac beef a dairy heifers as well as beef bulls and cows annually (>1 month before breeding) with a mod MLV.

Use a killed virus for dairy cows and feedlot calves on arrival
Give five differentials for mucosal disease in cattle
Acute BVD
MCF
Rinderpest
Vesicular stomatitis
What ruminant species carries malignant catarrhal fever virus and can expose cattle to the disease?
sheep
What are the routes of infection for paratuberculosis?
fecal-oral

transplacental
What is the incubation period for paratuberculosis?
1.5-2 yrs
What are the clinical signs of paratuberculosis infection?
chronic pipestream diarrhea
-diarrhea uncommon in small ruminants
-normal color and no blood or mucus
Progressive weight loss
Excellent appetite
Ventral edema
What are the gross lesions seen with paratuberculosis?
thickening of walls of ileum, jejunum, or colon

iliocecal and mesenteric LN grossly enlarged
What are the histopathological lesions seen with paratuberculosis?
granulamatous lesions

on smear look for acid fast bacili
What are the diagnostic tests used for PTB?
fecal culture

fecal smear

Nucleic acid probe/PCR

Serologic tests
What are the first line defense mechanisms for tits?
teat sphincter

shape of teat

teat canal

length and diameter of teat canal

udder depth
What are the second lines of defense for titties?
somatic cells
What are the other factors involved in titty defense other than first and second lines of defense?
1 lactoferrin

2 Immunoglobulin G2
Describe the changes in milk yeild sen with mastitis...
Increase: possibly fat, sodium, chloride, pH,whey proteins

Decrease: lactose, casein, calcium,phosphorus, and potassium, possibly fat
What are the pathogens involved in contagious mastitis?
strep agalactia

Staph auresa

Mycoplasma bovis

Corynebacteria bovis
Which is worse, staph or strept mastitis?
staph
Blitz treatment is used only for mastitis caused by what agent?
strept agalactiae
When is blitz treatment used?
only if bulk tank SCC is close to or exceeds the legal limit of 750,000 cells/ml and Strept agalactiae is prevelant
What are the three options for blitz treating mastitis?
1 treat all cows

2 culture milk from all cows and only treat strept pos cows

3 treat all cows that have high scc count.
What is the best way to reduce incidence of Strept A in a dairy herd?
post milking germicidal teat dipping
What is the best way besides blitz treatment to reduce the prevalence of Strept A in a dairy herd?
Dry cow antibiotic therapy
--infuse all quarters of all cows with antibiotics at the start of dry period
What is the best tool for monitoring contagious mastitis in a dairy herd?
individual cow SCC score
What are the 4 ways to monitor contagious mastitis in a dairy herd?
Individual cow SCC score

bulk tank SCC

bulk tank milk culture

individual cow milk culture
What are the most common environmental mastitis pathogens?
coliform bact
streptococci
P. aeruginosa
Serratia marcescens
nocardia
prototheca
fungi/yeasts
arcanobacterium pyogenes
What two pathogens are responsible for most episodes of clinical environmental mastitis in well managed herds?
coliform bacteria
streptococci
When is a cow most susceptible to coliform mastitis?
Early involution (first 2 weeks of dry period)

Prepartum period (last 2 weeks of dry period)

Early peak lactation (first 100 days)
What is Bismuth subnitrate used for?
It is an internal tit sealant
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