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207 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tb test is which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type IV (delayed)
describe type II hypersensitivity
Ab coats a target so that cells with Fc receptors (PMNs, monos, etc.)
ADCC falls into what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type II
this type of hypersensitivity is due to circulting Ab-Ag complexes
Type III
what is ELEK?
test for toxin production for C. diptheriae
two ways to diagnose Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis
India ink and latex agglutination test for Ag
this bug grows near S. aureus on blood agar
H. influenzae
use of Thayer-Martin agar
grows Neisseria from locations that have normal flora (i.e. genital tract)
diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis
growth of N. meningitis from CSF on chocolate agar
owl's eye inclusions in the urine
CMV infection
C. neoformans: urease (+) or (-)?
urease positive
acute mastitis is associated with what life change? What bug?
breast feeding, S. aureus
chronic mastitis is associated with what life change? What bug?
perimenopause; no bugs (it is sterile, due to inspissated mucus)
pernicious anemia is associated with what HLA type?
DR5
Chaga's disease is associated with …
megacolon, megaesophagus, and dilated cardiomyopathy
a positive tuberculin skin test means that …
a cell-mediated immune response has occurred (no Ab required!)
what does P. aeruginosa exotoxin A do?
ADP-ribosylates (inhibits) EF-2, a GTP binding protein involved in protein synthesis
what does pertussis toxin do?
ADP-ribosylates (inhibits) GTP-binding protein that inhibits adenylate cyclase, resulting in ↑cAMP (turns the "off" off)
what does cholera toxin do?
ADP-ribosylates (activates) GTP-binding protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase, resulting in ↑cAMP (turns the "on" on)
etiologic agent that may be involved in membranous GN
Hep B
multiple episodes of Neisseria meningitis suggests what immunologic defect?
C6, C7, C8
cell-surface markers for B cells
CD19, CD20, and CD21
cell-surface markers for T cells
CD3 (along with CD4 or CD8)
cell-surface markers for NK cells
CD56
two GU bugs that induce endocytosis
Neisseria and Chlamydia
most likely bug to cause an epidemic of pediatric diarrhea
Y. enterocolitica
ss + RNA virus that causes diarrhea and may have serious neurologic sequellae
polio
what is the form of malaria that enters the body through the mosquito bite?
sporozoite
schizontes live where?
liver cells
1/3 of those with malaria will have what very severe sequellae?
acute renal failure
describe blackwater fever
hemolysis leading to black urine and renal damage (due to malaria)
rheumatoid arthritis is what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type II
asthma and urticaria are examples of what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type I
SLE and vasculitides are examples of what type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type III
most common parasitic infxn in the US
cysticercosis
condyloma is caused by what virus?
HPV
most common bug in acute bacterial prostatitis
E. Coli
how does cholera do its dirty work?
activates adenylate cyclase
paternity testing is based on …
genetic allotypes
definition of isotypes
IgE, IgM, IgD, etc.
the crystalline core of eosinophils is composed of …
major basic protein
catalase +, gram + cocci that grows well on mannitol salt agar
S. aureus
what type of vaccination do we give for measles?
live virus (kids > 15 mo of age)
cells that express BOTH CD4 and CD8 are ____ _____
immature T cells
painful ulceration on the penis is most likely caused by …
H. ducreyi (chancroid)
microscopic findings in chancroid
pleomorphic rods in "school of fish" pattern
polyarteritis nodosa is associated with what viral infection?
Hep B
how does a superantigen work its magic?
binds TCR variable region to MHC Class II to induce massive T cell activation
the name of the specific anti-treponemal test
FTA-ABS
what agar is used to grow Legionella?
buffered charcoal yeast extract
name some reportable infectious diseases
MMR, AIDS, gonorrhea, Salmonella, Shigella, syphilis, TB, chickenpox, Hep A and B
triad of Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome
purpura, eczema, recurrent bacterial infxn
patients with Wiscott-Aldrich are at increased risk for what cancer?
NHL
spirochete with "Shephard's Crook" appearance
Leptospira
gram stain and shape of Brucella
gram (-) cocci
what type of sensitivity: wheal and flare reactions?
Type I
what type of sensitivity: berylliosis?
Type IV (delayed)
what type of sensitivity: Graves' disease?
Type II
patient with chronic cough + tiny yeast in lungs
Histo
stain used for fungi
silver stain
another name for the acid-fast stain
Ziehl-Neeson stain
catalase (-), coagulase (-), optochin sensitive gram (+) cocci w/ greenish discoloration on blood agar
S. pneumo
sequence of events in the maturation of a B cell
heavy chain gene rearrangement > cytoplasmic mu chains > light chain gene rearrangement > IgM on surface > IgG & IgM on surface
contaminated swimming pools often transmit what virus?
adenovirus
major cause of diarrhea in kids under age 2
rotavirus
NADPH oxidase produces …
superoxide anions
myeloperoxidase produces …
H2O2 >>> HOCl
caused of upper lobe pneumonia with cavitation
K. pneumo
type of pneumonia associated with artificial ventilation
P. aeruginosa
mechanism of action of cycloheximide
inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis
primary opsonin in the C' system
C3b
the electron transport system of bacteria is located in the …
bacterial plasma membrane
bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users is usually due to …
S. aureus
RBC-sized lung organisms that stain spherical or ovoid-shaped with silver stains
PCP
chronic antral gastritis is associated with …
H. pylori
in dxing a UTI, you find that the nitrate dipstick is negative. What's the bug?
Enterococcus (gut streptococci)
nitrate dipstick is positive for what bugs?
all the gram (-) enterics - E. Coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas
hepatitis type which is very dangerous in pregnant women
Hep E
before mast cells can degraunulate due to allergen exposure and cause a type I hypersensitivity reaction, what must occur?
sensitization - processing of Ag by APCs, production of IL4 by Th2 cells causing B cells to switch from IgM to IgE, IgE binds to surface of mast cells
what is the bug that carries and perpetuates Lyme disease?
Ixodes tick
most prevalent form of mycobacterium disease in AIDS patients
TB
levels of IgM in common variable immunodeficiency
all Ig low (lack of plasma cells)
the numbers of B cells in common variable immunodeficiency are …
normal
the numbers of B cells in Bruton's agammaglobulinemia are …
low
the most common presentation for G6PD hemolysis in Africa is …
a child who has just eaten beans
in the body, where can Histo be found?
intracellularly (not passed between people)
stain used for PCP
silver stain
four bugs that take advantage of people with chronic granulomatous dz
S. Aureus, S. Aspergillus, Nocardia, Salmonella (all are phagocytosed and not killed)
lack of C5 causes a susceptibility to what bug?
Neisseria
defective chemotactic response predisposes to what type of infection?
bacterial
the first three factors involved in the classical C' pathway
C1, C4, C2
acute epidydimitis with orchitis is most often caused by …
N. gonorrhoeae
at-risk individuals for PCP include AIDS patients and …
premature infants
Chlamydia must live intracellularly because …
it cannot make its own ATP
S. aureus is a common pathogen of what part of the body?
nasopharynx
When B cells undergo isotype switching, they require these two things
IL-4, and interaction with T cells (CD40 on the B cell interacts with CD40L on the T cell
state the levels of IgG in hyper-IgM syndrome
IgM high, eveything else low
defect in hyper-IgM syndrome
CD40L on T cells causes B cells to fail to undergo isotype switching
a defect in IL-2 secretion puts patients at risk for what type of bugs?
intracellular
the RNA virus "exception" that replicates in the nucleus
orthomyxo (influenza)
the DNA virus "exception" that replicates in the cytoplasm
pox
the triad of cutaneous hemorrhage, periventricular calcifications, and deafness suggests which of the TORCHES?
CMV infection
most common cause of chronic meningitis
TB
deficiency of what C' tends to produce an SLE-like syndrome?
C4
The Ig profile for common variable immunodeficiency and X-linked agammaglobulinemia
low IgM, IgG, IgA
through where does N. fowleri enter the brain?
through the cribriform plate
during which phase of bacterial growth do spores form?
stationary phase
triad of Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome
eczema, thrombocytopenia, and repeated infections
transmission of Wiscott-Aldrich
X-linked
a T lymphocyte with low affinity for MHC Class I turns into a …
CD8+ Tc lymphocyte
a T lymphocyte with low affinity for MHC Class II turns into a …
CD4+ Th lymphocyte
gram (-) septic shock is mediated by what part of the gram (-) membrane?
Lipid A
the vaginas of prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women is colonized by …
bugs of the skin (e.g. Staph)
the vaginas of women of child-bearing age are colonized by …
lactobacillus, candida, and Strep
gastric cancer has been linked to what bug?
H. pylori
population of cells responsible for DTH reaction
CD4+ T cells
where does HSV2 hang out during the asx times of the disease?
sacral ganglia
patients with Lyme arthritis commonly have what HLA association?
HLA-DR4
the bugs that undergo natural transformation
Haemophilus, Neisseria, Step, Helicobacter
virus associated with polyarteritis nodosa
Hep B
what type of hypersensitivity is poison ivy exposure?
DTH (Type IV)
name some type III hypersensitivity reactions
SLE, glomerulonephritis
how to differentate common variable immunodeficiency from X-linked agammaglobulinemia
in CVI, the B cell count is normal
at what age does common variable immunodeficiency often present?
2nd-3rd decades
when does ADA deficiency commonly present?
early in life
the infectious form of Crypto
encapsulated budding yeasts (it is a monomorphic fungus)
transmission form of Histo
septate hyphae with micro- and macroconidia
type of streptococcus which can cause rash on palms and soles
S. moniliformis ("rat-bite fever")
Ig used in the response against encapsulated bacteria
IgG (especially subclass 2)
loss of MHC Class I expression would make cells invincible to killying by what type of T lymphocyte?
CD8+ Tc lymphocyte
what is beta-2-microglobulin?
a signalling molecule of MHC I
transmembrane protein of HIV
Gp41
surface protein of HIV which may bind Ab
Gp120
outer membranes exist in gram (-/+) bacteria
-
toxin which ADP-ribosylates the Gs protein to permanently turn it on
cholera toxin
toxin which ADP-riboxylates the Gi protein to permanently turn it off
pertussis toxin
Blasto infection is acquired by …
inhalation of spores
live virus vaccines
MMR, sabin polio, yellow fever
killed virus vaccines
salk polio, rabies, rotavirus, flu, HepA/B
what blood component works in concert with Ab to clear encapsulated bacteria?
C'
ADCC is used against what type of cell?
host cell (not bacteria!)
what is a reagin?
an immunogen that stimulates an IgE response
the immunogen in quinine-mediated hemolysis
RBC+quinine (not just quinine because it cannot elicit a response by itself, which is the definition of an immunogen)
where do superAg bind?
invariant region of beta chain of TCR and MHC Class II molecules of APCs
psoas abscess ("cold abscess") is associated with what bug?
TB (tuberculous osteomyelitis)
what mechanism allows a B cell to express both IgD and IgM?
alternative mRNA splicing
toxic metabolite that causes problems in SCID
deoxyadenosine
which type of virus, in its infective form, can be diretly translated?
ss (+) RNA
how is Lyme diagnosed in the lab?
look for IgG or IgM Ab
acid-fast bugs that cause diarrhea in the immunocompromised
Cryptosporidium and Isospora
what does a "western blot for HIV" actually look for?
Ab to HIV Ag
B7 on an APC interacts with ___ on a T cell
CD28
a genetic deficiency in ___ confers immunity to macrophage-tropic HIV
CCR5, a chemokine receptor required for the entry of HIV into CD4 T cells
ringworm of the hair and scalp transmitted by cats and dogs
Microsporum canis
most common cause of keratoconjunctivitis
adenovirus
type of cell that produces IL-2 and IFN-g
Th1 cells
type of cell that produces IL-1 and TNF-g
macrophage
type of cell that secretes IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10
Th2 cells
most common route of transmission of C. jejuni
poultry
a defect in NADPH oxidase causes …
chronic granulomatous disease
turns off the Gi protein via ADP-ribosylation
B. pertussis
do Th2 cells recognize carrier or hapten in a vaccine?
carrier
Graft-vs-host disease is mediated by …
CD8 Tc from the graft attacking the host
pathogenicity of Giardia is mediated by …
ventral sucking disc
germ tube formation is used to identify …
C. albicans
the RPR test is used for …
detection of T. pallidum antibody
how do we visualize T. pallidum?
immunoflourescence staining (has replaced darkfield microscopy)
three important genera of acid-fast organisms
Nocardia, Mycobacteria, Cryptosporidium
organisms that are not acid-fast stain ___ with acid-fast stain
blue
the HIV pol gene codes for ….
RT and integrase
how does the P. aeruginosa exotoxin work?
like diptheria toxin - ADP-ribosylates EF-2
bullous pemphigoid is a Type ___ hypersensitivity reaction
II
RA is a Type ___ hypersensitivity reaction
III
ABO incompatibility is a Type ___ hypersensitivity reaction
II
Myasthenia gravis is a Type ___ hypersensitivity reaction
II
serum sickness is a Type ___ hypersensitivity reaction
III
erythema chronicum migrans usually affects what part of the body?
groin, axilla, thigh
the toxin of P. aeruginosa is most similar to what other toxin?
Diphtheria
what is the mechanism of diphtheria and pseudomonas toxins?
ADP-ribosylate EF-2
what differentiates pseudomonas and diphtheria toxins?
pseudomonas works in the liver, and diphtheria works on nerves and heart
patient living in the southwest who develops ARDS and dies
hantavirus
animal that spreads hantavirus
deer mouse
describe a patient with SSPE
ataxic, optic atrophy, oligoclonal bands on tap, cerebral atrophy, early death
two most important chemotactic factors for neutrophils
IL-8 and C5a
why are patients continually susceptible to reinfection with N. gonorrheae?
changes in its antigenic coat
to determine the strain of S. aureus, what lab test should be done?
bacteriophage sensitivity
a rash on hands and feet indicates …
tertiary syphilis, RMSF, or Coxsackie
stain used to diagnose PCP
silver stain
a patient with Y. enterocolitica that secondarily develops arthritis has which type of hypersensitivity reaction?
Type III
to what type of disease is a patient with Bruton's susceptible to?
bacterial
cause of pinkeye
S. pneumo
common cause of neonatal meningitis; present in mom's flora
Listeria
make the dx: small intracellular yeast growing at RT as a mold, has hyphae with micro and macro-conidia
histo
AIDS patient with multiple visual field deficits and decreased visual acuity - bug?
CMV infection
underlying mechanism responsible for hypersensitivity to penicillin
Ab against drug bound to RBC surface
abrupt loss of resistance to an abx in a bacteria is due to …
loss of a plasmid
the swelling of a bee sting is due to …
local vasodilation
immunization induces the proliferation of which type of T cell?
Th cell
S. pyogenes is differentiated from the other types of beta-hemolytic strep by its sensitivity to …
bacitracin
CMV is most often seen in the …
immunocompromised
blood components involved in the Arthus reaction
preformed Ab and C'
when does an Arthus rxn occur?
reimmunization (e.g. tetanus booster)
coating of latex beads with __ and __ can be used to ID gram (+) cocci
IgG and fibrinogen
where in the US is coccidio found in the soil?
southwestern US
protective measles antibody is to what epitope on the measles virus surface?
hemagglutinin
what type of organism tends to affect women with self-induced abortions?
anaerobes (e.g. Clostridia)
normal Ab production but recurrent bacterial infections suggests a problem with what WBC?
neutrophils