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317 Cards in this Set

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Oral infective endocard
HACEK: Hemophilus, actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella
S. epidermidis
coag-neg staph - endocard w/ prosthetic valves
Lyme dz symptoms
Drooping left side face, ptosis caused by
Lyme dz
spirochete, Borrelia burg on Ixodes tick; test with Western blot, molec wt
Nucleic acid testing
PCR, RFLP, souther blot test for
Events during translation
1st AUG; initiator transfer to RNA carries methionine to AUG (at aminoacyl site) start codon; (MORE See problem 14 test #1) Add AA after methionine initiation; binding charged initiation of tRNA, formation of cmpleted initiation complex; hydrolysis of protein by peptidyl transferase
CFTR anomaly
delta F508 mutation, interferes with protein folding needed for a stable structure
inhibits formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides
C reactive proteins
Rise with inflam., nonspecific
Meningitis clinical signs
neck still, mental status change, + lumbar puncture
Ostium primum defect
Failure of this to fuse with endocardial cushions
Pompe Dz
Glycogen storage Dz; Glycogen accum in all organs; Prominent muscle and skeletal symptoms; Lacks hypoglycemic and acidotic episodes
Cholesterol metab prob
congen adrenal hyperplasia metabolism problem
Gaucher dz
Tyrosinemia, albinism, alkaptonuria
Tyrosine metablism items
Southern blot
DNA-DNA hybridization
Southwestern blot
DNA-protein; Protein sample electroph, filter, labeled DNA
Western Blot
Protein electroph, filter, antibody
Metabolic acidosis
low pH, low HCO3-
DKA State
Increased B-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate ratio (due to increased B-H production
Increased in DKA state
plasma catecholamines, glucagon
Vit C symptoms
Ecchymoses, splinter hemorrh, fragmentation of hair
Floride affects
Pentose phosphate shunt makes
NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate
mitochon ox phos makes
ATP and water
Citris acid cycle makes
CO2, NADH, and FADH2
B oxidation makes
acetyl CoA to ketones (acetone and B-hydroxybutyrate) if acetyl CoA does not enter CAC
Causes pot belly, pale child, puffy face
Mg deficiency
decreased reflexes, plunts parathyroid responses to hypocalcemia
Selenium deficiency
reversible form of cardiomyopathy
Carbox of glutamic acid
requires Vit K
Biotin deficiency
causes alopecia
Niacin deficiency causes
dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea = pellagra
Calcium oxalate crystals
bipyramidal, pos birefring
PKA activated by
Glycogen phosphorylase kinase is phosphorylated and activated by
Glyvogen phosphorylase is phosphorylated and activated by
Glycogen phosphorylase kinase
Hartnup dz
AA transport
lysosomal storage dz
lysosomal storage dz
Marfan and dislocated lenses
cystathionine synthase deficiency (?), dislocation of bilateral lenses; methionine excess
Increase Km
Move X intercept closer to X = 0 (on neg side); x intercept = -1/Km.
Less activity
Higher on y axis
Wet beriberi symptoms
dilated cardiomyopathy
dry beriberi symptoms
RibOflavin deficiency
cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis

Flavored red Cheerios on tongue and hand (skin) leave red mark
Phenylketonuria symtom
musty odor and mental retardation
Type 1 Collage mutation
OI, multiple fractures
Homobox genes
problem in transcription factors; supranumerary ribs, digits

(Keep ribs and fingers at home in hox, people who could not type (transcribe))
signaling defect through FGFR3, constant activation
Histadine decarboxylase
converts tyrosine to DOPA
urea cycle enz cleaves fumarate off arginosuccinate, producing arginine
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase
performs 1st step in conversion of lipid cholesterol to bile acid
Homogentisate oxidase
tyrosine catabolism, defective in alkaptonuria
Thrombin function
Serine protease, just as chymotrypsin, trypsin, plasmin, plasminogen, elastase; Thrombin cleases fibrinogen to form a fibrin clot
Isovaleric acidemia
aminoacidopathy, characteristic odor
Vit B12 needed
Conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA
Vit B6 needed
Degredation of cystathionine
Folate supplementation
Megaloblastic anemia, not Sickle cell dz
Homozygouns sickle cell
needs hydroxyurea tx
Sickle cell symptoms
pain crisis, arthralgia, ab pain w/ vomiting
Lipoprotein lipase def
Accum of chylomicrons (can't be broken down)
Maple syrup Dz
branched chain ketoaciduria; BC ketoacid dehydrogenase defect
Tyrosine abnormalities
tyrosinemia, albinism, alkaptonuria
XR, should not affect females
Pyruvate kinase def
RBC can't make enough ATP to maintain Na/K pump, secondary to swelling and lysis
Fat breakdown
ATP tp AMP = -2 ATP; i.e. 10 carbon split 4 X making 20 ATP; Each Acetyl CoA uses 2 C, worth 12 ATP
MM = muscle; BB = brain; MB = heart; Creatine kinase phosphorylates creatine to make CP
Menkes Dz
lack of Cu; depigmentation, lusterless hair, facial, ocular, vascular, cerebral manifestations
Ca transprt defect
arrhythmia, seizure, bone strength change
Fattty acids make
Acetyl CoA that is not used to make glucose
AA precursor for NO
Neurotransmitter, not a precursor
Tyrosine hydroxylase
Copper-dependent tyrosinase, deficiency causing albinism, blocks production of melanine from the aromatic amino acid tyrosine
Hyunter Dz
a glycoprotein disorder
Homocystinuria Dz
Disorder of sulfur-containing AA
Iron supplementation and HbA1c
Falsely decreased
B12/Folate def and HbA1C
Falsely elevated
G6PD and RBC
hemolysis, increased RBC turnover, falsely lower HcA1C
Hemophilia A and blood
Also Cherry red spots, neuro degen, blindness, hepatosplenomeg.
Elastin-associated microfibril defect
focal contacts, w/ intermediate filaments
actin polymers
Transketolase require
thiamine pyrophosphate (in pent phos path)
Albumin synth requires
Dolichol substratre for forming branched carbo trees, then transfer to proteins, occurs in RER, then golgi, then lysosome
Dermatan sulfate and hyaluronic acid
GAGs added to form proteoglycans, not glycoproteins
I cell Dz
course facial structure, clubbing of feet, large tongue; mannose phos. Problem
DNA methylation in what dz
fragile X
Epi absence
phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mutation causes
Succinate dehydrogenase
Complex II
Subacute thyroiditis
de Quervain thyroiditis; very tender, resolves
5 criteria for rheumatic
carditis, migratory polyarthritis, subQ nodules, Syndenham's chorea, erythema marginatum. ; Minor: fever, arthralgia, elevated acute phase reactants, prolonged PR interval
Pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin secretion
marker for medullary carinoma of thyroid, component of MEN II
Epi:NE ratio used to screen for pheochromocytomas
Guillain Barre syndrome
Spinal motor nerves probs; demyl of spinal and cranial motor nerves
ARDS/diffuse alveolar damage
Recruit neutrophils within alveolar capillaries, produce O2 radicals, prostaglandins, and proteases that damage epithelium.
A/V fistula symptoms
diastolic BP lowers, constant mean BP, increased CO, systemic vasc R decreased
Bullos pemphigoid
Skin condition assoc with Goodpasture; Ab against basement membrane in skin, making blistering dz
Third degree AV block
absence of relations b/w P and QRS
Type II 2nd degree AV block
non-conducted P waves preceding prolongation of PR interval
Wencheback-type 1, 2nd degree AV block
progressive prolongation of PR interval
Sinoatrial exit block
skipped beats with beats occurring at correct time
Pickwickian syndrome, phrenic nerve paralysis, poliomyelitis
venules and veins
Hemmorage, what constricts
Thoracic duct
drains right leg, all left side
11Bhydroxylase def
salt retention, weak mineral..deoxycort. Inc ACTH, virilize female fetus
17 alph hydrox
Male, female diminish; females have norm tract and genitalia, males feminized. Testes cannot make test, resulting in the feminization
Vasc R inc in lower body, not blood flow to lower body
LR (6)
orbicularis oculi
facial nerve, closes eye
Facial nerve
platysma muscle innervation
High Na
Right shift (exercise)
O2 unloading: Inc. 2,3 DPG (w/ glycolysis), temp, PCO2, dec pH (accum lactic acid)
Left shift
CO causes _____ shift?
pH 7.6, HCO3 @ 14; Met alkalosis w/ Stim resp center, followed by met acidosis
Acute salicylate poisoning
Trousseau syndrom
migratory thrombophlebitis w/ cancer, esp parcreatic CA (RA does not have mig. Thrombophleb.)
Anemia compensation
Increased 2,3 DPG, CO, RBC H conc. DPG and H cause right shift, so mixed venous PO2 is dec.
Inc test and Inc LH
Labs in andro insensitivity
Dillution of lab values is normal in ____, glucose can be positive (reference level lowers) and this is normal.
Sertoli only
only sertoli cells of seminif tubules are present (germinal cell aplasia). Spermatogenesis absent. Both male and female type tracks due to absence of Mullerian regression factor. Leydig make test, so have external male genitalia.
Transmural infarction
ST elevation in several leads plus elevated labs
Unstable angina
Heart enz elevation 2X normal upper limit
Splinter hemorrhages
Microemboli arising in arterial circulation create?
eclampsia, hypovolemic shock, ascending infection
Casues of renal failure in pregnancy
Refetoff syndrome; resistance to thyroid hormone
Mutation of gene receptor, short for age, hypothyroid symptoms; inc plasma TSH, I trapping, and serum T4 and T3.
Dysfunctional bleeding, polycystic ovarian syndrom is a common cause, Test with progestin challenge (will cause mens. Bleeding and confirm this.
Pepsin production
Cause stress ulcers
causes gallblasder to contract after fatty meal
NSAIDS and indomethacin
Inhibitors of PG synthesis, facilitate PDA closure
Severe anemia, wide pulse pressure
Severe anemia causes (not cyanosis--does not occur)
Nephrotic syndrome
Membranous glomerulonephritis makes...Sm molecules filtered, cholesterol, TG, lipoproteins elevated. K, Na not affected.
Hereditary spherocytosis
cytoskeletal protein defect such as spectrin deficiency causing hereditary sphere. RBC have normal type of Hb
Hydrops fetalis
Ab against fetal blood cells, mom sensitized to fetal cells
Remove renal cortex
Renin increases since aldo down, lose Na, JR inc. renen.
asbestosis and silicosis
Examples of restrictive lung dz
Couvoisier sign
painless distention of gallbladder
Biliary colic
Acute syndrome, due to obstruction of cystic duct of common bile duct. Deep pain
Cholestatic jaundice
CA head of panc, compression of common bile duct leads to obstructive jaundice. Courvoisier sign (painless distention of gallbladder)
Golgi tendon organs
sense tension within muscle and produce inhib feedback to alpha motor neurons to relive tnesion. Alpha motor neurons carry morot impulses in a reflex arc in response to afferent info from intrafusal fiber stretch via 1a nerves.
Babinski sign
Extensor plantar reflex
Dressler syndrome
Autoimmune resulting in fibrouns pericarditis w/ fever and pleuropericardial chest pain several weeks afer myocardial infarction.
Pulmonary caqpillary wedge pressure
used to measure Lt atrial pressure; can be called pulm, capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, or wedge pressure. Inflated and wedged in sm pulm artery.
Prox tubule and water
Site where most water reabsorbed
Aorta to left pulm artery
Dir of blood flow through PDA in infant (reverse prior to birth)
Excretion rate
UV in the GFR = UV/P
flow = Change in P/R, i.e. (100-10)/1 = 90
Progesterone contraceptive
increases last half of cycle
Has binding sites for collagen, platelets, and fibrin
Tissue factor
Protein released from injured tissue that works in concert with Factor VII to initiate extrinsic pathway
Falctors VIII, IX, VII and TF
Cleave Factor X to Xa
Serum protein opsonin for phagocytic cells in clots
Total lung capacity
Only positive measured airway pressure
Beginning of ejection
When is diastolic BP in V-P chart?
Immed before isometric relaxation
When is closure of aortic valve (incisura or dicrotic notch
Aortic and vent sys pressure
Vent sys pressure 2-3 mm Hg higher
Most important neurotrans for induction of REM
Serotonin fn
CNS neurotrans for mood, sensation; periph, it is involved in vascular regulation and digestive fn
Highest wall cross section area to lumen CSA, highest resistance too; caps have no muscle in walls
Tongue innervation
V3: Anterior 2/3 of tongue somatic sensation (mandibular division); V2: Sensation from palage, upper gums, upper lip; VII nerve: tase from anterior 2/3 of tongue; IX: sensation and taste from posterior 1/3; X: sensation from the lower pharynx
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Lessen pain by overly stimulating, triggers inhib neurons ("gatekeepers")
perception of pain following a normally innocuous stimulation of mechanoreceptor
Central pain
Caused by thalamic lesions, originates at level of brain rather than periphery
Plasma osm
Calculate!! 42L; i.e. (12,600 mOsm - 2400)/(42-2 L) = 255 mOsm
Most important hormone for increasing intest. Blood flow
relaxes intest sm musc and stim gut secretion of water and electrolytes
Stim secretion of bicarb-containing fluid from pancreas and biliary ducts
Site of estradiol production prior to ovulation and during; after it is by corpus luteum (source of second rise)
LH surge
What enhances estrogen production by ovary?
Osmolar Gap
Gap = Osm (measured) - [(2Na+)] x (glucose/18) + (BUN/3)
PCO2 down 4X
Quadruple resp rate
N. Meningitidis
Erythema chronicum migrans
Lyme dz skin lesion with expanding eryth, clear center
Bacterial myocarditis
S. Aureus and C. diptheriae
S. sap vs S. epiderm (sensitive)
S. pneumo (Sen) vs viridans strep
high vaginal pH, diabetes, use of Ab
Predispose to Candida
Rash with ampicillin
Brucella abortus
undulating fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomeg.
Beta hemolytic strep
Scarlet fever, phage mediated
Has lecithinase
one-week old, nuchal rigidity, high CSF neutrophils
N. Meningitidis
Meningitidis, 2-3 decade
Strep pneumo
Alpha hemo, lysed by optochin
Strep mutans
Alpha hemo, not lysed by optochin
Strep agalactiae
Beta hemo, resistant to bacitracin
Enterococcus faecalis
Beta hemo, grows 40% bile and 6.5% NaCl
Catalase-pos, gram + cocci
Grow on mannitol salt agar
H. Influ
1 age for meningococcal meningitis
JC virus (a polyomavirus) and measles virus
Oligodendrocytes directly infected by what viruses
JC virus (a polyomavirus)
Cause of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Cause of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Peripheral nerves affected by what virus
Germ tube test used for…
Camp j.
Oxidase test using phenylenediamine used to test for (black colony is positive)
coagulase test
Test for fibrin production
C. perfringens
Nagler's reaction (test for lecithinase) used for
catalase test
Test with hydrogen peroxide
CCR5 is a
CXCR1, receptor for fractalkine
Rapid progression of HIV in homozygous ___
CD8 and TNF-alpha involved in HIV binding
staph aureus for the factors V (NAD) and X (hematin), of lysed RBC
Redness, yellow crust on eye, need what to grow?
Prefers cold temp for growth
Bartonella henselae, also causes bacillary angiomatosis
Catch stratch caused by?/ Also causes??
Psoas abscess, flexion (it's primary action, and external rotate)
Muscle affected after spinal TB, and what movement affected
gluteus medius, g. maximus
Hip abductors
adductors longus, brevis, magnus
hip adductors
glut max
hip extensors
glut minimus, pectineus, gracillis
internal (medial) rotator
metronidozole, bismuth, subsalicylate, omeprozole, tetracycline or amoxicillin
Treat H.Pylori
penicillin assos w. diarrhea, mild intest irritation
Ab assoc with photosensitivity, mild epigastric distress, mild dizziness
Beta-adrenergic receptor-blocker, B1, cardiac muscle
dermatitis herpetiformis
microscopic blisters
Munro abcesses
actinic keratoses
solar elastosis
between petrous portion of the temporal bone and the greater wing of sphenoid
Location of carotid canal
Proteus, Ureaplsma, Nocardia, Cryptococcus, H. Pylori; this neutralizes acidic pH allowing organisms to invade mucosal surface, cause ulcer
Usease producing organisms, what does this do in stomach
catalase, superoxide dismutase (like anthrax), flagella (like uropath e.coli), mucinase (like V. cholara)
H pylori protective mech
hypersecretion of gastric acid, trophic increased density of parietal cells; decrease In G cells; basic level high, no increase with meal
Zol ellison causes
Erythema chronicum migrans, cardiac (AV nodal conduction defect), neurologic probs
Lyme findings
Ixodes dammini, transmits spirochete (is not vector itself)
Deer tick
mono-like symptoms
Fibroblast and CMV
aneurysm from atherosc. And dissect from HTN or Marfans (cyctic medial necrosis); vasculitis = aneurysm in sm arteries
Abdominal aortic aneurysm vs aortic discection vs. vasculitis
mexiletine, tocainide, lidocaine (indicated for c tach): shorten action potential duration and refract period and improve resting potential duration
class 1B drugs
Class II, ultrashort acting beta-1 adrenergic blocker
glycosylphosphhatidylinositol (GPI ) anchor; ; - assoc with somatic mutations in PIG-A gene for PIG-AP (anchor protein); ; - sensitive to lysis by complement; prone to thrombosis and thomboembolism (potential intra hepatic for Budd-Chiari); - definitive test is Hamm test
Parox defect
masseter, medial pterygoid, temprarlis
Close jaw
greater wing of sphenoid and lower from lateral pterygoid plate
two heads of lateral pterygoid arrise from
Huntington's chorea
Severe atrophy of caudate nucleus (med-size spiny neurons), less putamen and cerebral cortex, dilation of lateral ventricles. CAG trinucleotide repeat on short arm of chrom 4. No therapy
Pick bodies
silver-staining cytoplasmic inclusions
Progressive supranuclear palsy
widespread neuronal loss and gliosis in subcortical sites
Brucella abortus
dz with caseating granulomas, infect cardiovasc system--aotric valve most commonly, next mitral.
Coccioiddes immitis
dimorphic fungal dz, gransulomatous pulm syndrom; san joaquin river valley
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae--
pleomorphic, gram neg rod, local infxns, fish, butchers, poultry, housewives.
niacin effects
reduces LDL in 5-7 days, max 3-5 wks, TG and VLDL reduced 20-40% in 1-4 days, HDL up 20%
Cor pulmonale
increasd in Rt vent outflow, causing Rt vent hypertrophy and dilatation, many sm emboli can cause this by reducing outflow
inflammatory breast carcinoma
Do inflam response; tumor spread into dermal lymphatics, producing diffuse induration and skin tenderness typical peau d'orange, older pt
chronic mastitis
perimenopausal, obstructed ducts due to inspissated secretions, resolves, mamogram shows calcification of ducts
acute extrapyramidal due to neuroleptic therapy (1st few days); Sustained eye deviation (oculogyric crisis), which is reversible with antihistamines, anticholinergics, or diazepam.
restlessness, occur within months
Tardive dyskinesia
irreversible, involuntary choreoathetoid movements when pt treated with antipsychotics; unlikely to occur within first few days of therapy.
Wiskott-aldrich syndrome
X-linked SCID; presents w/ triad of purpura, eczema, and recurrent opportunistic infxn with organisms w/ capsule (S. pneumoniae).; Usually dec IgM and T-cells (later); ; most people die before 2nd decade; Bone marrow some success; Pt have defective response to polysaccharide Ag (due to cytoskel defect in T cell, inhibit binding to B cells)
Increase risk w/ Native Am; Fat, fertile, female, forty, flatulent; Predom cholest.; Mixed stones w/ crohn, CF, clofibrate therapy, estrogen Rx, rapid wt loss, Native Am.; Risk factors include chronic hemolysis, alcohol, biliary infxn
Hemociderin MO
Goodpasture, CHF
Charcot-Leyden Crystals found in; rhomboid shape derived from enz w/I eosinophils
Bronchogenic carcinoma
Neoplastic cells w/ atypical features, inc N/C ratio, nuc hyperchromasia, irreg nuc contour
Curschmann spirals
COPD has ____ which are corkscrew-shaped casts resulting from mucus plugs
3-5 micrometer yeast, vacuolated or granular appearance in cytoplasm
Kruckenberg tumor
ovarian metastasis of a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma.; Bilateral, arise from a GI primary (often stomach)
Has blood filled cavities lined by endometrial tissue (chocolate cyst); Endometretioid tumors DO arise from this
Clioblastoma multiforme
Most frequent malignant neoplasm of brain; Malig degen astrocytes in white matter; present as ill-defined mass, necrosis, hemorrhage, rarely multifocal
Thymidine dimer
UV radiation casue covalent linkage b/w two adjacent T NS, NS excision repair problem
ATM gene product, member of PI-3 kinase family, mitogenic signal transduction, detection of DNA damage, and cell cycle control
HNPCC (heteditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
mismatch repair
cerebral ataxia
DNA repair enz deficiency
Fragile X
Break point at q27.3; Culture lyms w/ folate deficient medium or methotrexae that tend to break chromosomes; For diagnosis, 4% of metaphase chroms must show break; Break of site CGG nuc repeat, worsens each generation (larger), worsening MR
Turner (45XO)
Y chromosome problem
Reid Index
Measure deepening levels of bronchial wall in chronic bronchitis
unstable angina or crescendo angina, w/ slowly dev thrombosis (w/ or w/o atherosc)
Not relieved with nitro
Kawasaki dz
Coronary artery vasculitis
Carcinoid sydrome
Rising 5-HIAA levels in urine; Tx w/ octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analog that binds on carcinoid tumor and inhibits synthesis and release of tumor hormones, slowing growth
Tell Pt reason for visit
Pt brought by daughter
hypothalamic hormone and a neurotransmitter
Median nerve innervation
Thumbnail bed, palmar aspect of forefinger
Medulary carcinoma of thyroid
neoplastic C-cell lineage, lg amounts of calcitonin, lead to lower levels of Ca
Causes of hypercalcemia
hyper PTH, hyperthyroidism, Addison's, chronic renal failure, massive bone destruction (leukemia, metastatic carcinoma, multiple myeloma)
Lenticulostriate arteries
blood supply for internal capsule
Broca's aphasia
Right facial hemiparesis can accompany…
Biliary tract dz, liver dz, bone dz, pregnancy
Elevated alkaline phaphatase
Wilson's dz
Ch 13, inadequate copper excretion by biliary sys, initially liver fatty change and later heptocellular necrosis, inflam, bile duct proliferation; Caudate and putamen affected, extrapyramidal movements; Copper deposits in Descement's membrane in cornea, view with slit lamp
secondarfy syphilis
rash on palms and soles
Neural crest derivatives
leptomeninges, melanocytes, autonomic ganglia, and connective tissue and bone of brachial arch origin
Neural crest/Mesoderm
adrenal medulla/cortex origin
heparin-induced throm (HIT); bivalirudin (Enoxaparin also CI, b/c it also potentiates ATIII)
Initial potentiate ATIII, then dev thrombocytopenia; next indicated is ?
rhGCSF to treat neutropenia 2ndary to CA chemo
plasminogen activator used as a thrombolytic agen in acute MI
lymphatic fluid from thoracic duct
High TG, low CH
Systemic generalized edema from decreased oncotic pressure (buy may just lead to pleural effusion)
Fungal infection can lead to pseudochylous effusion
Low TG, high CH
Coarctation consequences
- Inc renin and angII, retention of water and Na causing high TPR and BP; ; - colaterals take blood to lower body; ; - upper 50% higher pressure; ; - Inc ANP
Most responsive to carotid sinus, next aortic arch. Symp activity decreases with inc. pressure, para inc.
multipotential connective tissue found near or around blood vessels, no microfilaments
Dupuytren contracture
spindle fibroblasts with contractile properties, microfillaments comparable to Z lines
Ca-cntaining are most common; Uric acid stone: gout, leukemia (during chemo w/ cells dying), acidic urine; Choles from gall bladder; Cystine if have cystinuria; Styruvate (Mg-ammonium phos) make staghorn
granular complement and IgG at dermal-epiderm junction; ds-DNA, antinuclear ab (ANA)
dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
fibroblast growing in storiform "pinwheel" pattern--slow growing fibrosarcoma
lichen planus
sawtooth dermal/epidermal junction
Pautier microabcesses
mycosis fungoides (a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Horn cysts
lamellated collection of keratin that occur in seborrheic keratoses, a type of benign epithelial tumor of skin
S. epidermidis
Bacitratin resistant
Dist Strep agalactiae from S. pyogenes (bacitracin sens.)
Yersinia pestis
Coag positive
Optochin and bile resistent/sensitive
alpha hemolytic; S. viridins/ S. pneumoniae
Lymphokine activated killers
NK cells activated by IL-2 (made by T helpers)
respiratory diverticulum
aka laryngotracheal diverticulum, elarges to form lung buds that divide into two bronchial buds
mesothelial cells
in pleura of the pleural membrane make serous fluid
e.coli, AC activated by ADP Ribosylation of Gs to GTP; heat-labile
mech of action of v. cholera most list? What is it?
intracellular bugs; also stimulate MO
Use cell-mediated response when?
INF-gamma from and TNF-beta TH1
How to stimulate MO?
Wilms tumor, show embryonic glomerular and tubular structures in a spindle cell stroma; may contain SM, fat, cartillage, fibrous tissue, bone
Two year old with kidney tumor
eosinophilic cells packed w/ mitochondria
hamartomatous blood vessels
necrotic bacterial forms in MO, can cause mass lesions in kidney w/ being a true tumor
medulla oblongata
Corticospinal tract crossover
Serum associated amyloid
acute-phase reactant, made in liver in acute or chronic inflam condition, such as RA.
Assoc with amyloid deposits in heart, causes restrictive cardiomegally, arryth, heart failure
Ankyrin problem, dysfynctional NA/K ATPase pump, best checked with fragility study
Toxic granulation
prominent azurophilic granules
Neut. Response to bacteria
toxic granules and cytoplasmic vaculization (phagolysosome)
Acute estrinism, dec in inhibin causes inc in FSH, causing inc aromatase in Leydig and inc estrogen
Inc sodium
Pitting edema (often with hyper aldosteronism)
Progressive systemic sclerosis
ANA positive in 90%
Chronic renal failure
Peaked T waves
Inc in FSH