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355 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abdom pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Budd-Chiari syndrome
(posthepatic venous thrombosis) --looks like CHF, but will NOT have inc JVD!
achilles tendon xanthoma
familial hypercholesterolemia
adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Waterhouse-Friderichsen synd
arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
(fibrillin defect)
back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Pott's dz
(vertebral TB)
big toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape
babinski's sign
(UMN lesion)
bilat hilar adenopathy, UVEITIS
(noncaseating granulomas, "hot potato lung")
blue sclera
osteogenesis imperfecta
(type I collagen defect)
bluish line on gingiva
burton's line
(lead poisoning)
bone pain, bone enlargement (inc hat size), arthritis, inc fractures
paget's dz of bone
(inc osteoblastic & osteoclastic activity, inc alk phos d/t bone breakdown)
cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)
neurofibromatosis type I
cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), bilat acoustic neuromas
neurofibromatosis type II
calf pseudohypertrophy
muscular dystrophy (MC = Duchenne's)
"cherry-red spot" on macula
- tay-sachs (ganglioside accum)
- niemann-pick (lysosomal storage dz)
chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Dressler's synd
(autoimmune-med post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 wks after acute episode)
child uses arms to stand up from squat
gower's sign
(Duchenne muscular dystrophy: XLR deleted dystrophin gene)
child w/fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body
"slapped cheeks"
(erythema infectiosum/5th dz--parvovirus B19)
chorea, dementia, caudate degen
huntington's dz
(AD CAG repeat expansion; also has dec ACh)
chronic exercise intolerance w/myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
McArdle's dz
(muscle phosphrylase def)
cold intolerance
conjugated lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
intranuclear opthalmoplegia
(damage to MLF; bilat = MS; unilat = stroke)
(paralysis of the ADducting eye, nystag of the other eye; ONLY on lateral gaze)
continuous "machinery" heart murmur
(close w/indomethacin, open w/misoprostol/PGE)
cutaneous/dermal edema d/t CT deposition
(hypothyroidism, graves' dz)
dark purple skin/mouth nodules
kaposi's sarcoma
(usu. AIDS pts, assoc w/HHV-8)
deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation
Kussmaul breathing
(diabetic ketoacidosis; blow off CO2 to inc pH)
dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
(vit B3 / niacin deficiency)
dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
wet beriberi
(thiamine / vit B1 deficiency)
(same as dry beriberi but +cardiomyopathy)
dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Pasturella multocida
dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Sjogren's synd
(autoimmune destrxn of exocrine glands)
dysphagia (esoph webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
(may progress to esoph SCC)
elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
(collagen type 3 defect)
enlarged, hard, left supraclavicular node
Virchow's node
(abdom metast, poor prog)
erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) OR mycosis fungoides
(not HY)
facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Chvostek's sign
(hypocalcemia; also see Trousseau's sign)
fat, female, forty, & fertile
acute cholelithiasis (gall stones in GB / bile duct blockage)
fever, chills, HA, myalgia following antibiotic tx for syphilis
Jarisch-Herxheimer rxn
(rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)
fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza (allergy sxs), diffuse rash
fever, night sweats, weight loss
B symptoms
fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Peyronie's dz
(CT d/o; usu dorsum)
gout, MR, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
(HGPRT deficiency, XLR)
green-yellow rings around periph cornea
Kayser-Fleischer rings
(copper accum in Wilson's dz)
hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpig of mouth/feet/hands
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
(genetic benign polyposis, can cause bowel obstrxn; inc cancer risk)
HSM, osteoporosis, neuro sxs
Gaucher's dz
(glucocerebrosidase def; "crinkled tissue paper cytoplasm")
hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
alport's syndrome
(type IV collagen mut; "can't see, can't pee, can't hear")
hypercoagulability (l/t migrating DVT's & vasculitis)
Trousseau's sign
(adenoCA of pancreas (typically) & lung; hypocalcemia)
hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
(bilat amygdala lesion)
HTN, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
Conn's syndrome
(primary hyperaldosteronism)
hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
"blue bloater"
(chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells; inc REID index w/lots of mucous)
indurated, ulcerated genital lesion (nonpainful)
(primary syphilis; Treponema pallidum)
infant w/failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Niemann-Pick dz
(genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)
infant w/hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Cori's dz
(debranching enzyme deficiency)
(also von Gierke's dz)
infant w/microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, & structural heart defect
edward's syndrome
(trisomy 18)
jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Charcot's triad
(ascending cholangitis)
keratin pearls on a skin lesion
(also see in other SCC's)
large rash w/bull's-eye appearance
erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite
(Lyme dz, Borrelia)
lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
epidural hematoma
(mid meningeal artery rupture)
male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Bruton's dz
(XL agammaglobulinemia)
(B: Bruton's, B cells, Boys)
mucosal bleeding & prolonged bleeding time
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
(defect in platelet agg d/t lack of GpIIb/IIIa)
multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teeth
Gardner's syndrome
(genetic d/o, subtype of FAP; predisposes to colon cancer)
(growin' all this stuff like a gardener...)
necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) & necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegener's (c-ANCA+; vasculitis; soft palate necrosis)
or Goodpasture's (anti-BM abs; no soft palate necrosis)

(hemoptysis + glomerular dz)
neonate w/arm paralysis following difficult birth
Erb-Duchenne palsy
(superior trunk C5-C6 brachial plexus injury-"waiter's tip")
no lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Sheehan's syndrome
(d/t postpartum hemorrhage--> hTN --> dec BF --> pituitary infarct)
nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech
Charcot's triad (of MS)
oscillating slow/fast breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
(central apnea in CHF or inc ICP)
painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia
cold agglutinin dz
(autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mono from EBV; agglut of IgM Ab's)
painful, pale, cold fingers/toes
Raynaud's syndrome
(vasospasm in extremities)
painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Osler's node (infective endocarditis)
painless jaundice
cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
(l/t earlier dx of panc cancer)
palpable purpura, joint pain, abdom pain (child)
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
(IgA vasculitis affecting skin & kidneys; LE rash, self limited)
pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Wermer's syndrome (MEN I)
pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
"pink puffer"
(emphysema: centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [alpha1-antitrypsin def])
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait spots, short stature in a young girl
McCune-Albright syndrome
(mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)
polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Fanconi's syndrome
(proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
positive anterior drawer sign
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
Horner's syndrome
(symp chain lzn; MC w/pancoast tumor compression)
(anhidrosis = can't sweat on face)
pupil accommodates but doesn't react
Argyll Robertson pupil
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/UR infection)
Guillain-Barre syndrome
(autoimm acute inflam demyelinating polyneuropathy; no sensory loss)
rash on palms & soles
2* syphilis, RMSF, & coxsackie A (foot in mouth dz)
recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Job's syndrome
(hyper-IgE syndrome: PMN chemotaxis abnormality)
red "currant jelly" sputum
Klebsiella pneumoniae
(intesucception = "currant jelly stool")
(S. pneumo = "rusty" sputum)
red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola
Paget's dz of the breast
(represents underlying neoplasm)
red urine in the morning
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
(complement attacks RBC d/t defect in CD??)
renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
von Hippel-Lindau dz
(dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)
resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Parkinson's dz
(nigrostriatal DA depletion)
restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Pompe's dz
(lysosomal glucosidase deficiency)
retinal hemorrhages w/pale centers
Roth's spots
(bacterial endocarditis; also +splinter hems, osler's nodes)
severe jaundice in neonate
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
(congen unconj hyperbilirubinemia; but can be other things too..)
severe RLQ pain w/rebound tenderness
McBurney's sign
short stature, inc incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia
Fanconi's anemia
(inherited; often progresses to AML; not Fanconi's synd!)
single palm crease
simian crease
(Down syndrome)
situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility
Kartagener's syndrome
(dynein defect affecting cilia, cilia don't work)
skin hyperpigmentation
Addison's dz
(1* adrenocort insuff d/t autoimm or infx; inc ACTH, MSH [melanocyte stim horm]--> inc pigmentation)
slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Becker's muscular dystrophy
(XL, defective dystrophin, less severe than Duchenne's)
small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa w/blue-white centers
Koplik spots
(measles; other sxs: Cough, Coryza, Conjunctivitis)
small, nontender, erythematous lesions on palms/soles
Janeway lesions
(infective endocarditis)
smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
condylomata lata
(secondary syphilis)
splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
bacterial endocarditis
(can cause this, but not always)
"strawberry tongue"
scarlet fever (see w/rash), kawasaki dz (not always just tongue, but +lip, etc), & toxic shock syndrome
streak ovaries, congenital heart dz/coarctation of aorta, horseshoe kidney
turner's syndrome
(XO, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema)
sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi
(hyperuricemia<--can predispose, but not always w/inc urea)
swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
(vit C def: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synth)
swollen, hard, painful finger joints
(osteophytes on PIP = bouchard's nodes; DIP = Heberden's nodes)
systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
AV stenosis (PV too)
thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal tumors
Sipple's syndrome
(MEN 2A)
ulcerated genital lesion w/exudate (painful)
(Haemophilus ducreyi)
unilateral facial drooping
bell's palsy
(LMN CN VII palsy; bilat would be lyme dz or guillan-b)
urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
reiter's syndrome
(reactive arthritis assoc w/HLA-B27)
(PAIR dzs--> seroneg spondyloarthropathies)
vascular birthmark (port wine stain)
(benign, but a/w Sturge-Weber)
(stays forever vs strawberry goes away)
vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Schwartzman reaction
(following 2nd exposure to endotoxin)
vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
(alcoholics & eating d/o's)
"waxy" casts w/very low urine flow
chronic end-stage renal dz
WBC casts in urine
acute pyelonephritis
(cystitis --> bladder infx, no casts! just WBC's!)
weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Whipple's dz
(Tropheryma whippelii)
stary Wrocław
starego Wrocławia
anticentromere antibodies
scleroderma (CREST)
antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
pemphigus vulgaris
anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
goodpasture's syndrome
(glomerulonephritis & hemoptysis; no upper airway dz like w/weg's)
antihistone antibodies
drug-induced SLE
(SHIPP--hydralazine, inh, phenytoin, procainamide)
anti-IgG ab's
rheumatoid arthritis
(systemic inflam, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
(IgM ab's for IgG)
antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA's)
primary biliary cirrhosis
(female, cholestasis, portal HTN; need liver transplant)
antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA's)
- Wegener's = cANCA
- microscopic polyangitis = pANCA
- glomerulonephritis (pauci-immune crescentric) = pANCA
- Churg-Strauss synd = pANCA
antinuclear antibodies (ANA's: anti-Smith & anti-dsDNA)
(type III hypersensitivity; a lot of rheums are ANA+)
antiplatelet antibodies
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
(bleeding diathesis; spleen kills platelets; remove spleen)
anti-topoisomerase antibodies
diffuse systemic scleroderma (not CREST!)
anti-transglutaminase ab's
Celiac dz
(diarrhea, distention, wt loss)
(also antigliadin & anti-endomysial abs)
azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
auer rods
(in AML, esp promyelocytic type)
"bamboo spine" on xray
ankylosing spondylitis
(chronic inflam arthritis; l/t sacroilleitis; seroneg arthropathy, HLA-B27)
basophilic nuclear remnants in RBC's
Howell-Jolly bodies
(d/t splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
basophilic stippling of RBC's
lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
bloody tap on LP
subarachnoid hemorrhage
(MCC = ruptured berry aneurysm; 2nd MC = AV malf)
"boot-shaped" heart on xray
tetrology of fallot, RVH
branching gram-pos rods w/sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelii
bronchogenic apical lung tumor
Pancoast's tumor
(can compress sympathetic gang & cause Horner's synd)
"brown" tumor of bone
hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts; d/t:
- hyperparathyroidism (takes Ca2+ from bone, goes to blood)
- osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's dz of bone)
cardiomegaly w/apical atrophy
Chagas' dz
(Trypanosoma cruzi)
(mega-esoph & mega-colon)
cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule
rapidly progressive crescentric glomerulonephritis
"chocolate cyst" of ovary
(freq involves both ovaries; MC location = ovary; also in peritoneum; "gun powder" pattern)
circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
Homer Wright rosettes
(neuroblastoma [adrenal tumor], medulloblastoma, & Ewing's sarcoma; pseudo-rosettes are same??; diff from perivasc rosette/pseudorosette)
colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
Cystic Fibrosis
(CFTR mut in Caucasians--> l/t fat soluble vit def & mucous plugs)
degeneration of dorsal column nerves
tabes dorsalis
(tertiary syphilis)
(lose proprioception info; +Romberg; don't know where limbs are)
depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson's dz
(basal ganglia d/o: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
Curschmann's spirals
(bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
Call-Exner bodies
(granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
dysplastic squamous cervical cells w/nuclear enlargement & hyperchromasia
(HPV; types 16 & 18 predisp to cervical CA; perinuclear cytoplasmic clearing)
enlarged cells w/intranuclear inclusion bodies
"owl's-eye" appearance of CMV
(cowdry type A inclusions)
eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in liver cell
mallory bodies
(alcoholic liver dz)
eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
Lewy body
(Parkinson's dz, & a few others)
eosinophilic globule in liver
councilman body
(viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
rabies virus negri bodies
extracell amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
senile plaques
(Alzheimer's dz)
giant B cells w/bilobed nuclei w/prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")
Reed-Sternberg cells
(Hodgkin's lymphoma)
(owl's eye of protozoa = giardia)
glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
Schiller-Duval bodies
(yolk sac tumor)
"hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on xray
beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia
(BM expansion to gen inc RBC's)
hCG elev
--hydatidiform mole (w/ & w/o embryo) (precursor for chorioCA)
heart nodules (inflammatory)
Aschoff bodies
(pathomn for rheumatic fever)
(focal myocardial inflam w/multi-nuc giant cells)
heterophile antibodies
infectious mononucleosis
(EBV; inf B cells --> abnl IgM Ab's, dx w/sheep cells)
hexagonal, dbl-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
bronchial asthma
(Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
high lvl of D-dimers
(D-dimer = fibrin degrad product; Bud-Chiari--post-thrombotic)
"honeycomb lung" on xray
interstitial fibrosis
hypersegmented neutrophils
megaloblastic anemia
(B12 or folate deficiency)
hypochromic, microcytic anemia
--iron def anemia
--lead poisoning
--anemia of chronic dz (can be normocytic OR micro)
(HbF sometimes present)
increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid / maternal serum
--anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
--abdom wall defects (gastrocesis & omphalocele)
increased uric acid levels
--myeloproliferative d/o's
--loop & thiazide diuretics (exacerbate gout)
intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies
Cowdry type A bodies
iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum
ferruginous bodies
(asbestosis; inc risk mesothelioma & bronchiogenic CA)
large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunocompromised
Chediak-Higashi dz
(congen failure of phagolysosomal formation; may be albino)
low serum ceruloplasmin
Wilson's dz
(copper accum; hepatolenticular degeneration)
"lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
(immune complex deposition of IgG & C3b)
lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on xray
multiple myeloma
(aka "swiss cheese")
mammary gland "blue-domed" cyst
fibrocystic change of breast
monoclonal antibody spike in serum
1) multiple myeloma (M protein; usu IgG or IgA)
2) monoclonal gammopathy of undeterm significance (MGUS; nml aging)
3) waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
4) primary amyloidosis

(a bunch of plasma cells making exact same ab!)
monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine
--Bence Jones prots (multiple myeloma = kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine)
--waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)

(neither are detected as "protein" on U/A)
mucin-filled cell w/periph nucleus
signet ring
(gastric CA & lobular cell CA of breast; looks like a wedding ring)
narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph
"string sign"
(Crohn's dz; so much inflam that lumen is small, transmural inflam)
needle-shaped, negatively birefringenet crystals
nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules
(diabetic nephropathy)
"nutmeg" appearance of liver
chronic passive congestion of liver d/t RHF
(can also be d/t Bud-Chiari, which has no upper congestion, i.e. no inc JVP)
"onion-skin" periosteal reaction
Ewing's sarcoma
(malig round-cell tumor of bone)
periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area
Codman's triangle on xray
(osteosarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis, ewing's)
podocyte fusion on EM
minimal change dz
(child w/nephrotic synd; lose neg charge barrier in gloms)
polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone @cartilage erosion
(osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis; "bone-on-bone")
protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
neurofibrillary tangles
(alzheimer's dz & CJD)
pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement
glioblastoma multiforme
(tumor cells in "snake-like"/winding pattern)
RBC casts in urine
acute glomerulonephritis
rectangular, crystal-like inclusions in Leydig cells
Reinke crystals
(Leydig cell tumor)
renal epithelial casts in urine
acute toxic/viral nephrosis
rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
(calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
rib notching
coarctation of the aorta
(d/t colat. circ that develops)
sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance on histo)
Burkitt's lymphoma
(t[8;14] c-myc activation, assoc w/EBV)
silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
Pick bodies
(Pick's dz: progressive dementia, similar to Alz)
small granulomatous lesion in lungs (can calcify)
Ghon focus
(primary TB, Mycobacterium bacilli)
(secondary TB = cavitary lesion)
small, round RBC inclusions
Heinz bodies
(denatured Hgb; see in G6PD def, a-thalassemia, chronic liver dz [but more likely target cells])
"soap-bubble" in femur/tibia on xray
giant cell tumor of bone
(generally benign)
"spikes" on BM, "dome-like" endothelial deposits
membranous glomerulonephritis
(may progress to nephrotic syndrome)
stacks of RBC's
Rouleaux formation
(high ESR: multiple myeloma)
stippled vaginal epithelial cells
"clue cells"
(Gardnerella vaginalis; tx w/metronidazole)
"tennis-racket"-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells
Birbeck granules
(histiocytosis X[not HY], eosinophilic granuloma)
thrombi made of white/red layers
lines of zahn
(arterial thrombus, layers of plts/RBC's)
"thumb sign" on lateral xray
(Haemophilus influenzae type b)
thyroid-like appearance of kidney
chronic bacterial pyelonephritis (colloid looking??)
"tram-track" appearance on LM
membranoproliferative glomerulnephritis
TG accum in liver cell vacuoles
fatty liver dz / hepatic steatosis
(alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
WBC's that look "smuged"
(almost always B cell; "fragile lymphocytes"; affects elderly)
"wire loop" glomerular appearance on LM
lupus nephropathy
(thickening of BM)
yellow CSF
(2-3 day old SAH)
actinic (solar) keratosis is MC a/w...
predisp lesion to SCC
(rough, sandpaper-like; tx w/5-FU)
acute gastric ulcer a/w severe burns
Curling's ulcer
(↓↓plasma vol results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
acute gastric ulcer a/w CNS injury
Cushing's ulcer
(inc ICP stims vagal gastric secr --> l/t Cushing's triad: inc BP, dec HR)
alternating areas of transmural inflammation & normal colon
Skip lesions
(Crohn's dz, autoimmune, in small bowel, "string sign" on xray)
dissecting aneurysm is MC a/w...
aortic aneurysm, abdominal & descending aorta is MC a/w...
ascending aortic aneurysm is MC a/w...
--tertiary syphilis (aortic regurg)
--maybe HTN
atrophy of the mammillary bodies is MC a/w...
Wernicke's encephalopathy
(thiamine def causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia & confusion)
(beriberi, wet = heart, dry = neuro)
autosplenectomy (fibrosis & shrinkage) is MC a/w...
sickle cell anemia (HbS)
(more susceptible to SHIN/encaps orgs)
MCC bacteremia/pneumonia (IVDU)
S. aureus
MCC osteomyelitis (IVDU)
--S. aureus
MCC bacterial endocarditis (IVDU)
S. aureus (& S. epidermidis, pseudomonas)
bacteria a/w stomach cancer
H. pylori
MCC bacterial meningitis (adults & elderly)
--N. meningitidis
--S. pneumo(?)
MCC bacterial meningitis (infants & kids)
--GBS/E. coli = newborns
--S. pneumo / N. meningitidis = kids
benign melanocytic nevus
spitz nevus
(MC in 1st 2 decades)
bleeding d/o w/GpIb deficiency
Bernard-Soulier dz
(defect in platelet adhesion to vWF)
MC brain tumor (adults)
Mets > astrocytoma (incl GBM) > Meningioma > Schwannoma
("MGM Studios")
MC brain tumor (kids)
--MC infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) - 2nd MC overall
--MC supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)

1st MC = astrocytoma
MC breast cancer
invasive/infiltrating ductal carcinoma
(in U.S., 1:9 women will dev breast cancer)
MCC breast mass
1. fibrocystic change
2. carcinoma (MC in postmenopausal)
MC benign breast tumor
MCC nosocomial PNA
--e. coli
--pseudomonas (vent)
--s. aureus (?)
MC primary cardiac tumor (kids)
(a/w tuberous sclerosis)
MC cardiac manifestation of lupus
Libman-Sacks endocarditis
(nonbacterial, affecting MV)
MC cardiac tumor (adults)
1. metastasis (MC)
2. 1* myxoma (4:1 LA>RA; "ball & valve") - MC 1* (syncopal eps)
MC cardiomyopathy
dilated cardiomyopathy
(40% are familial)
MCC cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Arnold-Chiari malformation
(often p/w type II hydrocephalus & a/w syringomyelia)
MC chronic arrythmia
atrial fibrillation
(a/w high risk of emboli)
chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune) is a/w...
predisp to gastric CA
(can also cause pernicious anemia d/t loss of IF, essential to B12 absorp)
clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
MC congenital adrenal hyperplasia
21-hydroxylase deficiency
MC congenital cardiac anomaly
congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
(inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
MC constrictive pericarditis in developing world
MC coronary artery involved in thrombosis
(LAD = ant wall MI; V2, V3, V4 ST seg elev)
d/t iodine deficit or hypothyroidism
(protruding tongue, pot belly, MR, short)
MCC of Cushing's syndrome
1) corticosteroid therapy (exog, MCC)
2) excess ACTH secr by pit (Cushing's dz, 2nd MCC)
causes of early cyanosis (less common)
--tetralogy of fallot
--transposition of great vessels
--truncus arteriosus
(bypass pulm circ)
causes late cyanosis (more common)
(Eisenmeinger synd--> L-to-R becomes R-to-L)
(squat to inc afterload, improves)
blast crisis
lupus nephropathy
(anti-dsDNA ab's)
MC dementias
1) Alzheimer's dz
2) multiple infarcts (a/w carotid stenosis)
MC demyelinating dz
common causes of DIC
(STOP Making New Thrombi)
--gram-neg Sepsis
--burn Trauma
--Obstetric Problems
--Nephrotic synd
MC dietary deficit
MC vitamin deficit
diverticulum in pharynx
Zenker's diverticulum
(dx w/barium swallow)
ejection click is heard in...
aortic/pulmonic stenosis
MC esophageal cancer
worldwide = SCC
US = adenoCA
MC food poisoning
--S. aureus
--B. cereus
MC gene involved in cancer
p53 tumor suppressor gene
MCC of glomerulonephritis (adults)
Berger's dz
(IgA nephropathy)
MC gynecologic malignancy
endometrial CA (in US)
(cervical worldwide)
MC heart murmur
MV prolapse (if there's mitral regurg)
MC heart valves involved in bacterial endocarditis
--MV (d/t rheumatic fever) = overall MC
--AV = 2nd MC d/t rheumatic fever
--TV = MC in IVDU
MC helminth infection(s) in U.S.
1) Enterobius vermicularis (scotch tape)
2) Ascaris lumbricoides
(tx both w/-bendazoles)
epidural hematoma
rupture of middle meningeal artery
(fast bleed; can cause uncal herniation; a/w temporal bone fx; lens shaped)
subdural hematoma
rupture of bridging veins
(trauma; venous bleeding is slow--takes a few days)
MCC of hemochromatosis
--multiple blood transfusions (sickle cell, severe thalassemia pts)
--hereditary HFE mut

(too much iron; can l/t CHF & ↑ risk hepatocellular CA [↑aFP])
MCC hepatocellular carcinoma
cirrhotic liver
(often a/w hep B & C; ↑aFP)
MC hereditary bleeding d/o
von Willebrand's dz
MC hereditary harmless jaundice
Gilbert's syndrome
(benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
(stress induced jaundice; usu incidental lab finding)
a/w HLA-B27
- Psoriatic arthritis
- Ankylosing spondylitis
- IBD arthritis
- Reiter's syndrome
a/w HLA-DR3 or -DR4
DM1 (MC), rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
causes of holosystolic murmur
--tricuspid regurg
--mitral regurg
hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
Virchow's triad
(results in venous thrombosis)
cause of secondary HTN
renal disease
(d/t renal artery stenosis, chronic renal dz)
(OR, if young female w/new onset HTN think OCP's)
MCC hypoparathyroidism
(d/t messing it up in surgery; possibly have Chvostek's & Trousseau's)
MCC hypopituitarism
pit adenoma
(usu benign)
MCC infection in blood transfusion
hepatitis C
causes of kidney stones
1) calcium = radiopaque (MC)
2) struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-(+) orgs like Proteus vulgaris or Staph--UTI bugs)
3) uric acid = radiolucent
late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L→R becomes R→L)
Eisenmenger's syndrome
(d/t ASD, VSD, PDA; l/t pulm HTN/polycythemia; R heart becomes hypertrophied & shunts to L)
MC liver dz
alcoholic cirrhosis
MC lysosomal storage dz
Gaucher's dz
(crinkled tissue paper cytoplasm)
MC male cancer
prostatic carcinoma
(slow growing; tx w/flutamide)
MC malignancy a/w noninfectious fever
Hodgkin's lymphoma
MCC malignant skin tumor
basal cell carcinoma
(rarely mets)
MCC mental retardation
1) fetal alcohol
2) down's syndrome
3) fragile X
MC mets to bone
"BLTT with a Pickle & Kool-aid"
- Brain
- Lung
- Thyroid
- Testes
- Prostate
- Kidney
MC mets to brain
"Lots of Bad Stuff Kill Glia"
- Lung
- Breast
- Skin (melanoma)
- Kidney RCC)
- GI
MC mets to liver
"Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver"
MCC MV stenosis
rheumatic heart dz
mixed (UMN/LMN) motor neuron dz
MCC myocarditis
--coxsackie B
(both also cause aseptic meningitis--> d/t swimming in pool; flu-like sxs; resolves on own)
MC neoplasms in kids
1) ALL
2) astrocytoma (perivasc pseudorosettes)
MCC nephrotic syndrome in adults
membranous glomerulonephritis
MCC nephrotic syndrome (kids)
minimal change disease
(a/w infx/vax; tx w/corticosteroids)
(podocyte fusion)
MCC obstrxn of male urinary tract
(tx w/a-blocker + finasteride)
MC opportunistic infx in AIDS
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
(<200; DOC = trim-sulfa)
cause of opening snap
mitral stenosis
(diastolic murm, best in L lat. decubitis)
MCC osteomyelitis
S. aureus
MCC osteomyelitis w/IVDU
--s. aureus
MCC osteomyelitis w/sickle cell
ovarian mets from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
Krukenberg tumor
(mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
MC benign ovarian tumor
serous cystadenoma
MC malignant ovarian tumor
serous cystadenocarcinoma
MC pancreatic tumor
(head of panc; painless jaundice)
MCC acute pancreatitis
EtOH & gallstones
(next is ↑TG or hypercalcemia)
MCC chronic pancreatitis
- EtOH (adults)
- cystic fibrosis (kids)
common patient w/Hodgkin's disease
young male
(except nodular sclerosis type: female)
MCC pelvic inflammatory disease
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis) OR Chlamydia trachomatis
philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) is a/w...
MC pituitary tumor
1) prolactinoma
2) somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
MCC primary amenorrhea
turner's syndrome
MCC secondary amenorrhea
MC primary bone tumor in adults
multiple myeloma
(but it's actually a tumor of plasma cells)
MCC primary hyperaldosteronism
adenoma of adrenal cortex
(may ↑aldost &/or cortisol)
MCC primary hyperparathyroidism
1) adenomas
2) hyperplasia
3) carcinoma (many ↑PTH-like peptide)

MC primary liver cancer
hepatocellular carcinoma
(aka hepatoma; a/w Hep B & C; ↑aFP)
MCC pulmonary HTN
(a secondary pulm HTN)
recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
Buerger's disease
(STRONG a/w tobacco; can cause Raynauds phenom)
MC renal tumor(s)
- RCC (a/w von Hippel-Lindau & APCKD)
- paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin [polycythemia], renin [↑BP]; PTH [↑Ca]; ACTH [Cushing's])
right heart failure d/t a pulmonary cause
cor pulmonale
cause of S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
d/t ↑ ventric filling
(L→R shunt, MR, LVF [CHF])
(dilated LV)
cause of S4 (presystolic gallop)
stiff/hypertrophic ventricle
(AS, restrictive cardiomyopathy, after MI; "atrial kick," "atrial gallop")
MCC secondary hyperparathyroidism
hypocalcemia of chronic kidney dz
(can't make vit D→ ↓Ca → ↑PTH but ↓phos)
small cell lung carcinoma of the lung
(also seen w/a lot of brain pathology)
MC site of diverticula
sigmoid colon
MC stomach cancer
(if it goes to ovary→ Krukenberg)
MC sites of atherosclerosis
abd aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
(causes: aneurysm / CAD / periph vasc dz / stroke, TIA's)
stomach ulcerations & high gastrin levels
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
(gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
follicular lymphomas
(bcl-2 activation)
folicular lymphomas
Burkitt's lymphoma
(c-myc activation)
Burkitt's lymphoma
philidelphia chromosome of CML
(bcr-abl hybrid)
temporal arteritis
risk of ipsilat blindness d/t thrombosis of opthalmic artery
(↑ESR is a clue)
MC testicular tumor
MC thyroid cancer
papillary carcinoma
(orphan annie nuclei, psammoma bodies)
MC tumor in women
(estrogen dependent)
MC tumor in infancy
(gets worse a few months after birth & then goes away by childhood; benign)
MC tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)
adrenal neuroblastoma
(malignant; a/w homer-wright rosettes/pseudorosettes)
MC tumor of adrenal medulla (adults)
(usu benign)
MC type of Hodgkin's
nodular sclerosis
(vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predom, lymphocytic depletion)
MC type of non-Hodgkin's
diffuse large cell
- E. coli
- Staph saprophyticus
(young women)
MCC viral encephalitis
(temporal lobe encephalitis)
MC vitamin deficiency in US
folic acid
(preg women @high risk; body stores 3-4 month supply)
Ewing's sarcoma
"worst HA of life"
(MCC = berry aneurysm = a/w APCKD)
athlete + polycythemia
erythropoietin injection
bounding pulses, diastolic murmur, head bobbing
aortic REGURG
anti-gliadin ab's
anti-transglutaminase ab's
Celiac dz
(diarrhea, distention, wt loss)
(also anti-transglutaminase & anti-endomysial abs)
anti-endomysial ab's
Celiac dz
(diarrhea, distention, wt loss)
(also anti-gliadin & anti-transglutaminase abs)
inclusion body a/w yellow fever
councilman bodies
enlarged thyroid cells w/ground-glass nuclei
"orphan annie" eye nuclei
(papillary carcinoma of thyroid)
causes of hepatocellular CA
--chronic hepatitis (usu hep B, C)