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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bao1
The state of Bao.
si4
[A surname]
Hence, the name of the main character is actually “Si of Bao.”
tong2
Child, prepubescent child, virgin.
Zhou1
Zhou Dynasty (traditionally accepted dates 1122-255 B.C.E).
you1
Hidden, mysterious; supernatural.
幽王
you1wang2
King You of the Zhou. (r. 781-770 B.C.).
hou4
*1. Empress, principal consort.
*2. House, clan, ruler.

The second group of meanings (house, clan, ruler) is rarer and more archaic, and occurs in line 2 (夏后).
xia4
1. The Xia dynasty [name of a largely legendary dynasty, early 2nd millennium B.C.E.].
2. Summer.
shen2
Spirit, god, divinity.
hua4
*1. To transform, to change.
2. To transform morally and ethically; to teach.

Meaning #1 is often used of supernatural transformations. Meaning #2 occurs often in Confucian political rhetoric, and often refers to the power of the ruler to transform his people for the better.
long2
Dragon.
ting2
*1. Court [of a ruler].
2. Courtyard, garden.

The more “proper” character for meaning #1 is 廷.
yu2
I, me, my, we, us, our [first person pronoun].

This is a fairly common pronoun, though it only occurs in this lesson in our texts.
bu3
To divine, to tell fortune; divination, prophecy; diviner.
ji2
Auspicious, lucky.

This is one of the standard answers to a divination, the otherbeing “unlucky,” “inauspicious” (凶, 861).
li2
Saliva, spittle.
cang2
To hide, to conceal, to store, to save [goods or treasure].
bi4
Sacrificial offerings; gifts, presents, money.
hu1
Suddenly, abruptly.
du2
Cabinet, closet.
jiao1
Ceremony for offering sacrifices to heaven and earth; altar or temple for such sacrifices.

Because the altar was located outside of the city walls (城), this character eventually was used to describe the suburban areas of a city.
厲王
li4wang2
King Li of the Zhou (r. 878-827 B.C.).
mo4
End, tip, latter part, unimportant part, end.

Often used as opposite to 本 (root, basics; 74). Do not confuse with 未 (302); the two cross-lines have different lengths in relation to each other.
fu4
Woman, wife.

Compare to 妻 (192), which can only refer to a wife. Here, 婦人 is a general term for “women.”
luo3
Bare, nude, naked; to strip clothes off.
zao4
To make a racket, to abuse, to curse.
xuan2
Black, dark; mysterious.
yuan2
Lizard.
後宮
hou4gong1
Rear palace [women’s quarters].
chen4
To have one’s adult teeth come in; to lose one’s baby teeth.
zao1
To encounter, to meet up with [often a bad thing].
ji1
Woman’s hairpin; age at which a woman begins wearing such a hairpin [usually fifteen].
yun4
To be pregnant, to conceive.
xuan1
To proclaim, to make public.
宣王
xuan1wang2
King Xuan of the Zhou (r. 827-781 B.C.E.).
chan3
*1. To produce, to bear, to give birth to.
2. Means of livelihood.
ru3
1. Breasts; milk; to nurse, to produce breast milk.
*2. To give birth.

Though meaning #1 is much more common, meaning #2 is more likely here.
先是
xian1shi4
Before this, earlier.

The character 初 (305) is also used in this way. Both introduce some event that occurred before the main time frame in which the narrator has located himself.
yao2
Rhyme, song, folk song.
童謠
tong2yao2
Children’s rhyme; playground song.

In traditional Chinese narratives, children’s songs are often prophetic.
檿
yan3
Mulberry wood.
hu2
Bow.
ji1
Bamboo winnowing basket.

A 箕服 is therefore a quiver (服, 608-2) shaped like a bamboo winnowing basket (箕).
shi2
Truly, really, actually.

This is an archaic variant of the more common character 實 (339).
mai4
To sell.
lu4
To execute, to kill, to slaughter.

Sometimes used interchangeably with 僇 (681). Note that in this case the use of 使 tells us that the king sends someone to do this.
hao2(#1), hao4(#2)
*1. To scream, to cry, to wail. Partial synonym: 呼 (644).
*2. To call, to give a name to. Partial synonyms: 曰 (120), 謂 (252).

Meaning #1 is used here, #2 two lines further down.
cuan4
To escape, to flee, to go into hiding.

Note that the character consists of “cave” and “rat.”
xu1
Xu of Bao (A name; the ruler of 褒 at the time).
yu4
Legal case; crime; prison.
shu2
To redeem, to compensate for.
bi4
Sexual favorite [of a ruler].

Here, used causatively: “to make [someone] a sexual favorite.”
伯服
bo2fu2
Bofu (son of 褒姒).
shen1
To stretch, to extend.

Here, it is the name of a fiefdom.
申侯
shen1hou2
The Marquis of Shen.
yi2
Suitable, appropriate.

Here, the character is part of a name.
jiu4
Mortar.

Here, the character is part of a name.
宜臼
yi2jiu4
Yijiu (the son of the former queen and 幽王).

Note the prevalence of harem politics here. By removing the son of the daughter of 申侯 (his former queen) from the position of grand prince, the king alienates 申侯 and paves the way for the latter’s revolt mentioned several lines later.
huo4
To be confused, to be deluded; to be infatuated with [sexually].
cheng2(#1-2), sheng4(#3)
*1. To ride in a vehicle.
2. To take advantage of [a situation].
3. [Measure word for carriages].
xu4
To care about, to have pity on, to pay attention to.

This is a variant character of the more common 恤.
qu1
To gallop, to ride a horse, to drive a horse; to force, to drive [someone to do something].
chi2
To gallop, to hurry.

驅馳 often occurs with the poetic meaning, “to go hunting for pleasure.”
yi4
A bow and arrow with a string tied to the bow for retrieval; to go hunting with such a weapon.
lie4
To hunt.
不時
bu4shi2
At any time.

This idiomatic expression derives its meaning from the idea that something is done “at no [specific] time.”
mian3
Drunk, intoxicated.
流湎
liu2mian3
To be drunk constantly.
chang1
Popular entertainment [often of a sexual nature]; prostitutes.
you1
Popular entertainment or entertainers; actors.
xu4
To continue; in a sequence.
zhou4
Day, daytime.

Distinguish from 盡 (235).
duan1
End; reason; method.
feng1
Watch beacon, warning beacon.
sui4
Watch beacon, warning beacon.

烽燧 is a synonym compound; most often, a writer will just use 烽.
kou4
Bandits, raiders; to go raiding.
xi1
All.

Grammarians have observed that originally this adverb seemed to apply mostly to plural objects. For example, while the sentence 王皆愛其臣 would usually be interpreted as “Kings all love their minister(s),” 王悉愛其臣 would more likely be “The king loves all of his ministers” (in other words, 皆 (254) would indicate a plurality of kings, while 悉 would indicate a plurality of ministers). However, as we can see from this lesson, the distinction came to be ignored, and 皆 and 悉 came to be used interchangeably.
yue4
To delight, to give pleasure to; delighted, happy.

Notice that this is the “correct” form for a certain use of 說 (402-2).
huo3
Fire.
wei2
Only.
yu2
To flatter, to be obseqious towards.
百姓
bai3xing4
The common people [lit. “the hundred surnames”].
guai1
Perverse, obstinate; to be stubborn, to be disobedient.

Don’t confuse with 乘 (732)!
li2
To part from; to separate, to distinguish; separated from, parted; alienated from, hostile.
zeng1
The state of Zeng.
西夷
xi1yi2
Western “Yi” tribes [name of a barbarian group].
quan3
Dog.
rong2
1. [General name for “barbarian” tribes in the west.]
2. Military affairs; soldiering.
犬戎
quan3rong2
The “Dog Rong” tribes [name of a barbarian group].
zheng1
To draft, to conscript, to order [someone to appear].
li2
Black [horse.]

Here, the name of a mountain.
驪山
Mt. Li.

Near modern 西安; it is also the site of the first 秦 emperor’s tomb.
lu3
To capture, to take prisoner; prisoner, captive.

You will also find that this character is used as a pejorative term for “barbarian” enemies.
lu4
Goods, wealth, treasures; bribes; to bribe.
平王
ping2wang2
King Ping of the Zhou (r. 770-719 B.C.E.).
shi1
Poetry; The Classic of Poetry (詩經); a poem from the Classic of Poetry.

Lines from this classic are often quoted to ornament a story or illustrate a point.
yun2
To say.

Synonym: 曰 (120), although 云 is used more often for textual quotations.
he4
Glorious, shining.

Notice the poetic “reduplication” of the adjective.
song4
Hymn, ode, eulogy.

詩云﹕「赫赫宗周,褒姒滅之.」此之謂也 (ll. 20-21): In early texts, it is extremely common to illustrate a point by quoting a line or two from the 詩經; and in fact every biography in the 列女傳 has at least one such quote. Here, the quotation refers specifically to 褒姒: “How shining were the ancestors Zhou! [Yet] Bao Si destroyed them.” The phrase that follows (此之謂也) is an idiomatic term used after a quotation that emphasizes its relevance: literally, “[that] is naming/referring to this.”
xing1
To awaken, to arise; to flourish, to become eminent; to raise up, to mobilize.
pei4
To pair with, to match; to marry, to become the spouse of.
si4
Religious sacrifices; to sacrifice [usually to ancestors or to the royal house].