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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
rock-forming mineral
minerals that make up most rocks -- may be one or more than one
light colored rock with high silica content
dark colored rock that is low in silica
particles of minerals that give rock's texture - determined by the look and feel of the rock's surface -
look and feel of the rocks surface -- described by grain size, shape and pattern
igneous rock
formed from the cooling of magma or lava
sedimentary rock
formed when particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together - formed in layers beneath the earth
metamorphic rock
forms when existing rock is changed by heat, pressure or chemical reaction -- formed deep underground
mineral composition, color and texture
What geologists observe when studying a rock sample
The name igneous comes from the latin word ignis,meaning_______.
What is an extrusive rock?
an igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto earth's surface.
What is an intrusive rock?
an igneous rock that forms when magma hardens below earth's surface.
What is silica?
a material formed from oxygen and silicon
what happens when a rock has high silica content?
the rock is a light color
What happens when a rock has a low silica content?
the rock is a dark color
what did ancient Egyptians use granite for?
building material
What is pumice used for?
cleaning and polishing
what is obsidian used for?
tools for cutting and scraping
What is perlite used for?
helping vegetable seeds grow
What is sediment?
small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things.
what is erosion?
running water, wind, or ice that carries away fragments of rocks.
what's deposition?
the proccess by which sediments settle
What's compaction?
when particles get squeezed together
What is cementation?
when particles get glued together
what are three types of sedimentary rocks?
clastic,organic, and chemical rocks
What is a clastic rock?
a sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together.
What's an organic rock?
remains of plants and animals
what is a chemical rock?
minerals that are dissolved in a solution, crystallize
What is an example of a clastic rock?
(Shale,sandstone,conglomerate,and Breccia)
What is an example of an organic rock?
( coal and limestone formed from calcite)
what's an example of a chemical rock?
( halite and limestone formed when calcite is dissolved inlakes, seas, or underground water)
What is the House in Washinton made of?
What is limestone used for?
cement and steel
What's a coral reef?
skeletons that form and stick together/organic limestone
How big are most coral animals?
smaller than your fingernail
What are the types of metamorphic rocks?
foliated and nonfoliated
What are foliated rocks?
Rocks that have parallel layers or bands
What are nonfoliated rocks?
grains that are arranged randomly
After heat and pressure is added to granite, what does it form into?
After heat and pressure is added to sandstone, what does it form into?
Afterheat and pressure is added to shale, what does it turn into?
can slate split easily into flat pieces?
What can slate be used for?
flooring, roofing, chalkboards, and trim for stone buildings
What is the rock cycle?
A series of processes on earth's surface and in the crust and mantle that slowly change rocks from one kind to another
Is granite a sedimentary,metamorphic, or igneous rock?