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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what happens in a papilloma
viral induced hyperplasia
what happens in BPH
pathological hyperplasia of prostate epithelial cells
is metaplasia reversible?
what kind of metaplasia happens in tobacco users?
ciliated columnar bronchial epithelium goes to squamous stratified epithelium
metaplasia with kidney stone
squamous metaplasia
urothelium to strat squam
barrett's esophagus
strat squamous to gut columnar epithelium
2 really good markers for cardiac damage
ck-mb and troponin I
why does hypoxia cause clumping of chromatin
decrease in pH due to lactic acid!!
what happens to K, Na, and Ca in ischemic cell?
K goes out, and Na / Ca come in!
how do you tell normal heart cells from ones undergoing coagulation necrosis?
presence of nuclei
hydropic degeneration
cells reversibly injured swell up and turn clear
vacuoloar degeneration
cells reversibly injured swell up and turn clear
even several days after an MI, why is it good to still do angioplasty?
there is tissue that didn't die, but is in danger. it is in the no man's land on the edge of the infarct. these cells would be clear and full of intracellular edema, but they have nuclei and are still alive.
is nuclear condensation (pyknosis) rev or irrev
is mitochondrial amorphous density rev or irrev?
type of necrosis in myocardial infarction
6 types of necrosis
type of necrosis in kidney infarct
what is the most common place for an infarct in the kidneY???

here the interlobar arteries take a 90 degree turn into the arcuate arteries
hallmark of coagulative necrosis
intact enucleated cells
why do proximal tubule cells die from hypoxia faster than the distal?
they have lots of mitochondria and are dependent on oxygen!
how can dialysis restore kidney function to someone with kidney infarct?
BM is still there so the proximal tubule epithelial cells can repopulate
type of necrosis in brain
type of necrosis in abcess
abscesses are full of ___
pus - exudate with lots of PMNs and cell fragments
type of necrosis in a lung with pneumonia
liquefactive (pockets of pus)
what is fat necrosis?
destruction of adipose tissue by lipases. most often seen with acute pancreatitis when panc lipases are released into the peritoneum
what is liquefactive necrosis?
digestion by hydrolytic nzms is predominant pattern. pmns come in and digest everything into goo. no cell outlines visible.

salivary gland trauma or infection can lead to ___ necrosis
___ necrosis is a combination of ___ and ___ necrosis
caseous, coagulation, liquefactive
in tb patients, where is the caseous necrosis
in the center of the tubercle
what is fibrinoid necrosis
necrotic tissue due to immunologic reactoin, usually in blood vessels

complement and antibodies are deposited in wall.

fibrinoid means RED AND HOMOGENOUS
what does fibrinoid mean?
what causes gangernous necrosis?
primary coagulation necrosis with secondary liquefactive necrosis due to bacterial infection
what is the difference b/t dry and wet gangrene
dry gangrene- the bacteria dont produce a lot of liquefactive necrosis

wet - the bacteria do produce a lot of liquefactive necrosis
sammoma body
laminar chunk of calcium from calcification
heterotopic bone
formation of bone outside of bone
manner of death
homicide, suicide, natural, accidental, or undetermined

accidental - did an event precipitate all of this?
mechanism of death
how did they die?

heart failure
cardiopulmonary failure
multi organ system failure
immediate cause of death
what actually caused their death? WHY DID THEY DIE???

gastric carcinoma
underlying cause of death
may be different from immediate cause of death if something else led to that immediate cause.
who must give permission for an autopsy
next of kin (wife > kids)

if multiple kids present, all must consent
who should you contact if a forensic autopsy needs to be done?
the county medical examiner in the county where incident (NOT THE DEATH) occurred