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195 Cards in this Set

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This disease involves progressive narrowing and degeneration of the arteries in the neck, abdomen and extremities.

a. PAD
b. CAD
c. intermittent claudicatino
d. Venous thrombosis
PAD
Occlusive disease, aneurysmal disease and vasospatic phenomenon are sub categories of what?

a. PAD
b. CAD
c. intermittent claudicatino
d. Venous thrombosis
PAD
Venous diseases primarily affect what part of the body, and is categorized as venous thrombosis and chronic venous insufficiency

a. upper extermities
b. Head
c. lower extremities
d. midline
lower extremeties
What disease is responsible for the majority of cases in PAD
a. Diabetes
b. atherosclerosis
c. hypertension
d. MI
b Athersclerosis
People with PAD have 4to 5 times the risk of dying from a cardiovasculat event
true
The pathologic changes that occur withh atherosclerosis consist of migration and repilcation of:
smooth muscle cells, depostion of connective tissue, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration and accumulation of lipids
What is the 4 most common risk factors of PAD?
Smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and DM. The most important being smoking
PAD of the lower extremities may affect the aortoiliac, _____, popliteal, _____, or peroneal arteies
femoral, tibial
In PAD the femoral-popliteal area is the site most commonly affected in which patients?

a. diabetic
b. non diabetic
b. Non-diabetic
This patient tends to develop PAD in arteries below the knee, tibial, peroneal
diabetic patient
The classic symptom of PAD of the lower extremities is called?

a. intermittent claudication
b. ischemia
c. paresthesia
d. neuropathy
a,\. intermittent claudication
This is ischemic muscle ache or pain that is precipitated by a consisten t level of exercise, resolves within 10 ninutes or lesw ith rest and is repoducible

a. intermittent claudication
b. ischemia
c. paresthesia
d. neuropathy
a .Intermittent claudication
How do you get ischemic pain? And how does the pain stop?
due to the end products of anaerobic cellular metabolism like lactic acid. When you stop exercsising the metabolites clear and pain subsides
Match the palceswhere pain is caused by claudication:

1. Calf
2. Buttocks and thighs
3. erectile dysfunction

a. aortoiliac arteries
b. internal iliac
c. femoral or popliteal
1. c
2. a
3. b
This is another manifestation of the PAD in the lower extremities. It is manifested by numbness or tingling in the toes or feet, may result from nerve tissue ischemia

a. intermittent claudication
b. ischemia
c. paresthesia
d. neuropathy
c paresthesia
In reregards to PAD, true peripheral neuropathy occurs more commonly in patients with DM.
info
PAD can produce excruciating shooting or burning pain in the extremity,The gradual diminished perfusion of blood to the neurons produces loss of both pressure and deep pain sensations, and injuries and pain often go unoticed by the patient.

a. intermittent claudication
b. ischemia
c. paresthesia
d. neuropathy
d. Neuropathy
In PAD.. the physical appearance provides impt information about the adequacy of blood flow. what happens to the skin with people that have PAD. Skin becomes

a. thin, shiny, taut, hairless legs, absent pulses
b. dullt, loose, hairy legs, bounding pulses
a. Skin becomes thin, shiny, and taut, hairless legs, absent pulses.
With severe PAD what happens when you raise the foot.

a. reactive hyperemia
b. pallor
Pallor or blanching
With severe PAD what happens when you hang the foot off the side of the bed.

a. reactive hyperemia
b. pallor
a Reactive hyperemia.. redness of the foot
A clincal manifestation of PAD, as the diease progress advances and involves multiple arterial segements, continuous pain develops at ____
rest
In people with PAD,rest pain most often occurs in the ___ or toes and is aggravated by limb ____
forefoot, elevation
This type of pain occurs when there is insufficient blood flow to maintain basic metabolic requirements of the tissue and nerves of the distal extremity.
rest pain
Rest pain Often happens at night because the cardiac output tends to drop during sleep. True of false
true
What happens to the skin and underylying muscles of people with prolonged ischemia?
Atrophy
Complications of PAD. because of decreased arterial blood flow to the lower extremities it may result in delayed ____, wound ____, tissue _____,
healing, infection, necrosis
What is the most serious complications of end stage PAD, and what willhappen if blood flow is not restored?
non-healing arterial ulcers and gangrene, amuptation
Partial pain control with people with pad is if you dangle your foot off the side of bed.
True
Where to arterial uclers usually occur in the PAD
Over the bony prominences
Diagnositic studies of people with PAD, this is a probe transducer contains a crystal that directs high frequency soundwaves toward the artery or vein being examined.

a. doppler ultrasound
b. duplex imaging
c. angiography
Doppler ultrasound
This is a useful in determing the presence of blood flow by sound waves in PAD

a. doppler ultrasound
b. duplex imaging
c. angiography
a
A palpable pulse and a doppler pulse are equivalent, and these terms should be used interchangeably. True or false
False
These types of blood pressures are obtained a the thigh below the knee, and at the ankle level while the patient the is supine.
segmental blood pressure
This is a diagnostic study of PAD done by dividing the ankle systolic BP by the brachial SBP
ankle-brachial index
This PAD diagnositc study that uses a bidirectional doppler system to systematically map blood flow throughout the enytire region of an artery. It provides anatomical and physiological information about the blood vessels

a. doppler ultrasound
b. duplex imaging
c. angiography
b. Duplex imaging
This diagnositc study is used to further delinieate the location and extent of the disease process, providing information on inflow and outflow vessels to plan for surgery

a. doppler ultrasound
b. duplex imaging
c. angiography
c angiography
MRA
What is the first treatment goal of people with PAD
modiby cardiovascular risk factors:
Smoking
Decrease hyperlipidemia
controlled hypertension and DM
Treatment of hyperlipidemia includes this lipid lowerin agent such as statin. It lowers cholesterol levels and reduces cardiovaascular morbiddity and mortality. It also improves walking distance and speed in pts with PAD, regardless of cholesterol
Zocor
in controlling cardiovascular events with PAD what level should the BP and A1c be.
<130/80 and 7.0%
In drug therapy for PAD, these agents such aspirin, ticlid, and plavix are considered critically imporrnat for reducing the risks of cardiovascular death in pts with PAD. These are what?
antiplatelets
What is the first line oral antiplatelet therapy for patients with PAD?

a. aspirin
b. ticlid
c. plavix
a. or C.
Which antiplatelt is less prescribed because of the serious side effects of thrombocytompenia, neutropenia or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

a. aspirin
b. ticlid
c. plavix
b.
Drug therapy and treatment like ramipril helps hypertension LV. dysfunctions and PAD
ace inhibitors
Ace inhibitors (↑↓) cardiovascular morbidity, (↑↓) mortality, (↑↓) peripheral blood flow, (↑↓) abi, and (↑↓) walking distance
decrease, decrease, increase, increase, increase
what are the two drugs that are prescribed for treatment of intermittent claudication?
Trental and pletal
This intermittent claudication drug increases erythrocyte flexibility and reduces blood viscosity.

a. trental
b. pletal
Trental
This intermittenty claudication drug inhibits platelet aggregation and increases vasodilation. It also increases walking distance Howeverit does not reduce cardiovascular morbidity andmortality and is contraindicated for patietns with chornic heart failure
a. trental
b. pletal
b. pletal
in people with PAD The primary nonpharmacologic treatment for claudication is?
exercise training program
what is the most effective exercise for individuals with claudication?
how many minutes a day
walking
30-60
nurtional therapy in patients with PAD should be taught to evaluate their dietary intake. Diet cholesterol should be < ____mg/day, a decreased ___ intake and animal protein replaced with ___ protien products
200, fat, soy
This alternative therapy in intermittent claudication is effective increasing walking distance for patients. However side effects indclude h/a, nausea, gastrick symptoms, diarrhea, and allergic skin reactions.

a. aspring
b. bilberry
c. goldenseal
d. ginkgo biloba
d. Ginkgo biloba
If you are on antiplatelets we should consult with a helath care provider before taking ginkgo because of what?
increased bleeding risks
Taking folate, b6 and b12 helps lower homocysteine levels which is an amino acid that increaes CVD
info
This is a chronic condition characterized by ischemic rest pain, arterial leg ulcers, and or gangrene of the leg due to advanced PAD

a. chronic venous insufficency
b. aortic disection
c. DVT
d. critical limb ischemia
d. critical limb ischemia
Conservative managment goals for critical limb ischemia is ____ extermity from trauma, ____vasospasm, _____ infection, and _____arterial pefusion.
protect, decrease, prevent, maximize
soaking of the affected foot should be avoided in critical limb ischemia to prevent skin masceration.
true
other cares with Critical lim ischemia is immune modulation therapy to reduce the ____ response present in PAD and angiogenic gene terhapy to ehance the development of _______ circulation
inflammatory. collateral
interventional radiologic procedures are indicated for critical limb ischemia when?
intermittent claudication become incapacitating, Rest pain, sever ulceration or limb threatening gangrene
this is a inteventional radiologic procedure tha a catheter is inserted through the femoral artery, which contains a special baloon. the end of the catheter is advanced to the narrowed area of the artery, the balloon is inflated and the cracks the confinine atherosclerotic intimal shell while strching the underlying media. allowing blood fflow

a. endovascular graft
b. percutaneously transluminal balloon angioplasty
c. endarectomy
d. patch graft angioplasty
percutaneously transluminal balloon angioplasty
Balloon angioplasties are more effectieve in the (illiac-femoral, femoral politeal)
illiac femoral.
True or false. Percutaneously transluminal ballong angioplastys are effective on arteries with long segment lesions
false
These are expendable metallic devices that are positioned within th artery immediately after angioplasty, it assits in manintaining vessel patency after the procedure.
stents
The most common surgery for people with PAD that have long occluded arteries are?

a. endovascular graft
b. percutaneously transluminal balloon angioplasty
c. endarectomy
d. peripheral arterial bypass operation
d peripheral arterial bypass operation with autogenous vein or synthetic material
These grafts are used for long bypasses.

a. synthetic
b. autogenous vein
synthetic
when an autogenous vein is not availabel for a bypass for PAD, human umbilical, cyropreserved vein, or composite sequential bypass graft is available
info
This surgical option for PAD is used to open the arter by removing the obstructing plaque

a. endovascular graft
b. percutaneously transluminal balloon angioplasty
c. endarectomy
d. peripheral arterial bypass operation
endarterectomy
this surgical option for PAD is opening the artery removing the plaque and sewing a patch to the opening to widen the lumen.

a. endovascular graft
b. percutaneously transluminal balloon angioplasty
c. endarectomy
d. patch graft angioplasty
patch graft angioplasty
Health history of PAD:
DM, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and asessements of PAD, exercise intolerance, loss of hiar, decreased or absent peripheral pulses
info
Goals for pt with PAD
adequate tissue perfusion, relief of pain, ↑ exercise tollerance, intact healthy skinand extremities
The nurse should look at serum lipid pannels, hypertension, obesity and diabetes. edcuate hazards of tobacco and laziness, reduce intake of cholesterol, saturated fats proper care of feet .
info
Acute intervention after surgical or radiologic intevention shuolld be what?
checked every 15mintues initially than hourly for skin color, termperature, cap refill, presence of peripheral pulses, sensation and movement of the extremity
After the PAD pt leaves the recovery area. nursing care should focus on continued _____ assessment and monitoring for potential problems like bleeding, hematoma, thrombosis, emoblization
circulation
Knee flexed positions should be avoided except for exercise with people after bypass graft surgery?
true
amubulatory and home care with PAD and after surgery
be aware of risk factors, like smoking and cholestero levels. Patients should be taught about foot care an skin inspections. Patients should be taught to gradaully build up to physical activity, comfortable shoes and shoes lightly laced
Evaluation of people after surgeries with PAD
Identify activites that promote circulation
maintain adequate peripheral perfusion
intact skin, free of infection,
plans for walking program
increased activity tolerance
Outpouchings or dilations of the arterial wall and are common problems involving the aorta.

a. CAD
b. PAD
c. Aneurysms
d. atherosclerosis
aneurysms
Aneurysms invlve the aortic ____, _____ aorta, or ____ aorta
arch, thoracic, abdominal
Most aneurysms are found in the _____ aorta. below the level of hte renal arteries

a. arch
b. thoracic,
c. abdominal
c. abdominal
the most common etiology of aneurysms of the descending and abdominal aorta is? This causes teh deposits beneath the intima, and causes chagnes to the media where it loses elasticity, weakening and then it causes it to outpouch
athersclerosis
a congenital abnormality that develops aneurysms is related to specific defects in collagen.

a. ehlers-danlos syndrome
b. marfans syndrome
a.
a congenital abnormality that develops aneurysms is related to the premature degneration of vascular elastic tissue

a. ehlers danlos syndrome
b. marfans syndrome
b.
aortic aneurysms can be causes by infections aortitis like syphilis, salomenlla
info
this aneurysm is one in which the wall of the artery forms the aneurysm, with at least one vessel latyer still intact. It is deivided into two forms fusiform and saccular
true aneurysm
two types of aneurysms can be further subdivided into fusiform and saccular

This aneurysm is cricumferenctiona dn relatively uniform in shape

a. fusiform
b. saccular
a.
two types of aneurysms can be further subdivided into fusiform and saccular

This is a pouch like with a narrow neck connecting the bulge to one side of the arterial wall.

a. fusiform
b. saccular
b.
This type of aneurysm is not an aneurysm but the intima of the artery is torn and blood outpoutches a little bit, but is contained somehow
pesudoaneurysm
The most common manifestation of thoracic aorta aneurysms are often asymptomatic but the most common manifestation is?

a. hoarsness
b. laryngeal nerve pressure
c. deep diffuse chest pain
c deep diffuse chest pain.
aneurysms in teh aortic arche area produces angina, hoarsness because of pressure on the laryngeal nerve and pressure on the esophagus can cause dysphagia
info
AAA are often asymptomatic and frequently detected on routine phsycial examination. A pulsatile mass in the periumbical area slightly to the left of the midline may be detected by bruits.
info
The mos serious complication related to an untreated aneurysm is a ______.

a. chest pain
b. diaphoresis
c. rupture
c. rupture
If a patients AAA ruptures you may have severe back pain and stomach pain.. may or may not have back or flank ecchymosis called. What is this ecchymosis called.

a. blue toe syndrome
b. grey turners sign.
grey turners sign
If ruptures occurs anteriorly in a AAA most pts do not survive long enough to get to the hospital.
True
Preoperative for a person with an aneurysm as nurses we need to hydrate the patient, check electrolytes and coagulation, and hematocrit abnormalities are corrected
info
How do you repair a aneurysm
incise the diseased segment of the aorta, remove the thrombus or plaque, insert a synthetic graft and suture to the aorta, and then sture the native aorta wall around the graft for protective covering. All AAA resections require cross-clamping.
This aneurysm surgical procedure is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the placement of a suturless aortic graft into the abdominal aorda inside the aneurysm via a femoral arter cutdown. The graft is constrcuted from a dacron sylinder when the balloon is inflated there are a series of hooks that is anchored to the vessel.

a. edarectomy
b. endovascular graft procedure
c. patch graft angioplasty
b. endovascular graft procedure.
The most common complication of an endovascular graft this is the seeping of blood from the new endograft back into the old aneurysm site.
perigraft leak
Signs of an aneurysm rupture is: diaphoresis, paleness, wekaness, tachycardia, hyptension, abdominal, back, groin or periumbilical pain, LOC, pulsating abdininal mass
Signs of a rupture
Nursing managment for surgery of a aneurysm. baseline data: peripheral pulses, neurological status, skin lesions
Info
Patient goals undergoing an aortic surgery:
normal tissue perfusion, intact motor and sensory function, no complication r/t surgical repair, Thrombis/infection
Health promtion for nurses during Aortic aneurysms
encourage to reduce CVD, BP control, smoking cessation, increase physical activity, maintian normal body weight
Post op for aortic surgery?
monitor for graft patency
Cardiovascular status- continuous monitorying, frequent electrolyte anr ABG, o2 administration,
infection- watch WBC count
GI status
neurological status
peripheral perfusion status
renal perfusion status
aortic diessection is not a aneurysm.
true
This is a the result of a tear in the intimal lining of the arterial wall. It affects men more often than women and occurs most frequently b/t the 4th and 7th decareds of life

a. aortivc dissection
b. PAD
c. Aneurysms
d. atherosclerosis
a. aortic dissection
In an aortic dissection blood flows inbetween the ___- and ____ creating an false lumen. As heart contracts the pressure ____ and the tear gets bigger, and this can start to occlude other vessels
intima and media, increases
Person predispose to Chornic hypertension, marfan syndrom, pregnancy, blunt trauma are prone to aortic dissection
true
Persons with this syndrome, a premature degeneration of vascular elastic tissue have a higher incidence of aortic dissection
marfan syndrome
The manifestations of this is tearing and ripping, a severe pain that mimics that of an MI

a. aortic disection
b. aortic rupture
c. Aneurysms
d. atherosclerosis
a. aortic disection
Clinical manifestations of a aortic dissection depends on the location of the intimal tear
ture
A severe lifethreatining complication of aortic dissection of the ascending aortic arch is this, which ocurs when blood escapes formthe dissection ito the pericardial sac
cardiac tamponade
Another complication of a aortic dissection is this, which results in exanguination and death.

a. aortic disection
b. aortic rupture
c. Aneurysms
d. atherosclerosis
b. aortic rupture
another complication of aortic dissection is when the dissection grows and _____ the arterial suuply to vital organs.
occludes
This is the blockage in the lymphatic system swelling in one arm or leg, primarily causes are inherited conditions, secondary causes are conditions that damage lymph nodes or lymph vessels. Treatment focuses on reducing swelling and controlling pain
lymphedema
This is the sudden interruption in the arterial blood suplly to tissue, an organ or an extremity, if left untreated can result in tissue death.

a. chronic venous insufficency
b. aortic disection
c. acute areterial ischenmia
d. critical limb ischemia
c. acute areterial ischenmia
What are the most frequent cause of acute arterial occulsion
embolism, thrombus, and aneurysm
The clinical manifestation of ACute aterial ishcemic disorders is abruptly onset. and includes the 6ps. what are then
pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis and poiklothermia
This is the adaptation of an ischenmic limb to its environmental temperature, most often cool
poiklothermia
True or false: in cregards to acute arterial ischemia, without intervention, ischemia may prgress quickly to tissue necrosis and gangrene within a few hours
true
This is the most traditional anticoagulant for arterial ischemia.

a. warfarin
b. heparin
c. lovanox
b unfraactionated heparin
Collaberative care for arterial ischemic disorders is: anticoagulation, thrombolysis, embolectomy, surgical revascularization, amputation
info
This is a rare, nonatherosclerotic, segmental, recurrent inflammatory, vasocclusive disorder of the small and medium sized arteries, veins and nerves of upper and lower extemities

a. buregers disease
b. raynauds phenomenon
a. buregers disease
Buergeer disease affect women or men more?
women
This disease is a type of arteritis in which the inflammatory process damates teh arterial wall, lympohcites and giatn cells infiltrate the vessel wall accompaonied by fibroblast proilferation.

a. buregers disease
b. raynauds phenomenon
buergers disease
This disease is often confused with PAD, there are no diagnostic tests for it and treatment is complete cessation of tobacco including second hand smoke

a. buregers disease
b. raynauds phenomenon
buergers disease
This is an episodic vasospastic disorder of small cutaneous arteries, most frequently involving the fingers and toes.

a. buregers disease
b. raynauds phenomenon
Raynauds phenomenon
Raynauds phenomenon affect mainly women between 15 and 40 yoa
info
Raynauds phenomenon secondary are related to RA, lupus scherloderma
info
This characterized by vasospams induced color changes of the figners, toes ears and nose. nown at red white and blue

a. buregers disease
b. raynauds phenomenon
raynauds phenomenon
In raynauds phenomenon, decreased tissue perfusion results in ______ (white), the digits become ___ (blue), and followed by tre restoration of tissue _____ (red)
palor, cyanotic, perufsion
What would you teach patients with raynaudes phenomenon. Temperature extremes shoud be avoided, avoid caffien, immers hands in warm water often decreases vasospsm
info
Nifedipine is the most commonly used (type of drug) for raynauds phenomenon
calcium channel blocker
The most common disorder of the veins is the formation of a thrombus in associating with inflammation of the vein.

a. venous thrombosis
b. superficial thrombophlebitis
c. venous stasis
d. DVT
venous thrombosis
This is the inflammation of hte suverificial vein.

a. venous thrombosis
b. superficial thrombophlebitis
c. venous stasis
d. DVT
superficial thrombophlebitis
this is a disorder involving a deep vein, most commonly the iliac and femoral vein

a. venous thrombosis
b. superficial thrombophlebitis
c. venous stasis
d. DVT
DVT
The 3 factors of venous throumbosis is called the virchows triad this includes?
venous stasis, endothelieum damage, hypercoagulability of hte blood
THis factor of thrombosis occurs when the valves are dysfunctional or the muscles of the extremities are inactive. And the blood does not move very fast

a. venous thrombosis
b. superficial thrombophlebitis
c. venous stasis
d. DVT
Venous stasis
The pathophysiology of venous thrombosis is when platelts and fibrin entrap RBC, WBC and more platelts to form a thrombus, this cauess venous stasis, as the throubms enlarges it can occulde the vein and then if the thrombus gets knocked loose youhave a pulmonary embolism
info
The turbulence of __- __ is a major fctor contributing to detachment of the thrombus fro the venous wall
blood flow
The clinical manifestions of this venous problem is pt. may have a plapable firm subcutaeous ordlike vein, with tenderness redeness and warmth, slight temperature elevation caused by leukocytosis
superficial thrombophlebitis
The most common cause of superficial thrombophlebitis in the upper extremities is caused by?
IV therapy
The most commony cause of superficial thrombophlebitis in the lower extremeties is related to ____, more common in older pts.
trauma
The treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is, ____ the affected exermity to promote venous return and decrease edema, and the application of ____, moist heat
elevate, warm
If you suspect thrombophlebitis shouldyou remove the cathter
yest
What is usually given as a mild analgesic for superficial thrombophlebitis?
aspirin and NSAIDS
Clinical manifestations of DVT are unilateral leg edema, extermity pain, warm, skin, erythemia, and a systemic temperature greater than 100.4 degrees
info
The most common complication of DVT is pulmonary embolism, chornic venous insufficency and plegmasia cerulea dolens
info
This complication of DVT results from valvular destruction, allowing retrograde flow of venous blood

a. CVI
b. Plegmasia cerulea dolens
A Chonic venous insufficency
This complication of DVT is the swollen, blue and painful leg , a very rare complication that may develop in a patietn in the advanced stages of cancer

a. CVI
b. Plegmasia cerulea dolens
b.
DVT diangosis:
blood tests suct as ptt, platelet count, D-dimer testing

venous doppler evaluation
duplex scanning
venogram
info
prevntion and prophylaxis DVT.
Early mobilization is the easiest and most cost effective method to decrease the risk of DVT
Change positions often
TED hose
Intermittent compression devices
preventative anticoagulation
info
Nonpharmacoligc treatment ofr DVT
bed rest
elevation of exgtermity
anticoagulation therapy
warm compresses
Jobst stockings
info
The goal for anticoagulationo eherpay for DVT prohylaxis is ot prevent dvt formation. WHere as the goals in the treatment of the DVT is to prevent propagation of hte clot, development of any new thrombi and emobilization
info
Four major classes of the Drug therapy for DVT
vitamin K anticoagulants, indirect thrombin inhibitors, direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors
info
This is drug therapy for DVT are the comarins and indandiones. Warferin (coumadin)

a. vitamin K antagonists
b. indirect thrombin inhibitors
c. direct thrombin inhbitors
d. factor Xa inhibitors
a.
UH (heparin) and LMWHs (lovenox)affects both intrinsic and common pathways of blood coagulation by way of the plasma cofactor antithrombin

a. vitamin K antagonists
b. indirect thrombin inhibitors
c. direct thrombin inhbitors
d. factor Xa inhibitors
b.
These can be classified as hirudin derivatives or synthetic thrombin inhibitors.
a. vitamin K antagonists
b. indirect thrombin inhibitors
c. direct thrombin inhbitors
d. factor Xa inhibitors
c.
Tis inhibits Xa disriectly or indirectily.. fondaperinux

a. vitamin K antagonists
b. indirect thrombin inhibitors
c. direct thrombin inhbitors
d. factor Xa inhibitors
d.
for prophylaxis of DVT this is the chose to prevent DVT for most surgical patients. It lasts the duration of the hospitalization, orthopedic surgery may be prescribed prohylaxis for up to 1 month post discharge
LMWH (heparin)
The primary indication for suregery of DVT is to prevent recurrent PE
true
This surgical therapy of a dvt involves the removal of a DVGT through an incision in the vein.
venous throbectomy
These devices for DVT arefilters that are placed inthe jugular or the venoua cava to prevent emboli from going pulmonary.
venea cava interruption devices greenfield filter, etc.
Goals for patients with DVT
relief of pain, decreased edema, no skin ulceration, no compliations from anticoagulant theapy n oevidence of pulmonary emboli
These are dilated, tortuous subcutaneous veins most frequently found in the saphenous system. May be small and innocousous or large and bulgin
vericose veins
This type of vericose vein is idiopathic, which are more common in women and pts with a strong family history and probably caused by congenital wekaness of the veins

a. primary
b. secondary
c. reticular
d. telangiectasias
a.
This type of varicose veint typically results from a previos DVT or another identifiable obstruction.

a. primary
b. secondary
c. reticular
d. telangiectasias
b.
this varicose vein are smaller varicose veins that apperar flat, less tortuous, and blue green in color

a. primary
b. secondary
c. reticular
d. telangiectasias
c
these varicoase veins are often refered to as spider veins are very small visible vessels.

a. primary
b. secondary
c. reticular
d. telangiectasias
d.
Etiology of varicose veins are unknown.
true
Riskt factors for varicose veins :
congenital weakness
female gnder
use of oral contraceptives
increasing age
obesity
pregnancy
occupations requring prolonged standing
true
What is the most common symptom of varicose vein is?
ache or pain after prolgoned standing which is rlieved by wlakig or elevating hte limb
Common manifestations of varicose viens
swelling, discomfort, noturnal leg cramps
info
supervicial varicose viens can be diangosed by ______, if they are deep varicose veins.. _____ imaging detects the obstruction.
appearance, duplex
Treatment for vericose veins is usually a Cosmetic problem
info
This therapy for cosmetic varicose veins ivolves the injection of a substance that obliterates, spider, reticular, and superficial varicose veins
sclerotherapy
Nurse should instruct pt to avoid sitting, or standing for longperiods of time, maintain ideal body weight, avoid wearing constrictive clothing and participate in a daily walking program
prevention
this is a common problem in the elderly, in which the vlaves in the veins are damaged, which results in retrograde venous blood flow, pooling of blood in the legs and swelling
CVI
chronic venous insufficiency
The basic dysfunciton of this medical problem is incompentent valves aof the deep veins
CVI
this is a clinical manifestation of what? the skin of hte lower leg is leathery, witha characterisitc brownish or brrawny appearance from the hemosiderin deposition
CVI
In people with CVI, venous ulcer healing, and prevention of ulcer recurrence this is important in managment
comp
Moist environmental dressing are the mainstay of wound care for venous ulcers.
info
adequate protein calories and micronutrients are essential for healing of venous uclers
info
long-term managment includes education about self care:
avoid trama to limbs
proper skin care
compression stockings
activity and positioning
info
A pt diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease is most likely to also have
a. CAD
b. degnerative joint disease
c. a history of atrial fibrillation
d. a history of renal inssuficiency
a.
a 62 year-old woman weighs 92 kg and has a history of daily alcohol intake, smoking, high BP, high sodium intake, and sedentary lifestyle. The nurse identifies the risk factors most highl related to peripheral arterial diseas in this patent as

a. gender and age
b. weightt and ETOH intake
c. cigs and hypertension
d. sedentary lifestyle and high sodium intake
c.
a pt is scheduled for an abdominal aoritc aneurysm repair. the nurse suspects rupture of the aneurysm
a. the pt becomes dizzy and SOB
b. the pt. complains of sudden, severe back pain
c. a bruit and thrill are present at the site of the aneurysmm
d. the pt. develops blue, patch mottling of the feet and toes.
b
imporant nursing measures after an abdominal aortic aneurysm repair are to:
a. elevate the legs and apply ted hose
b. assess cranial nerves and mental status
c. administer IV heparin and monitor aPTT
d. monitor urine output, BUN and creatinine
d.
Specific symptoms of aortic dissection vary depending on
a. the medications that are administered
b. how elevated the BP becomes
c. the aortic branches affected in the descent of the dissection
d. the respiratory status of the pt. before dissection occurs
c.
rest pain is a manifestaion of peripheral arterial diseas tha occurs as a result of
a. the beginning of a venous leg ulcer
b. inadequate blood flow to the nerves of hte feet
c. inadequate blood flow to the muscles during exercise
d. inadequate blood flow to the skin after application of the heat
b
a pt. with infective endocarditis develops sudden left leg pain with pallor, paresthesia, and a loss of peripheral pulses. the nurses intial action should be to
a. notify the physician
b. elevate the leg to prmote venous return
c. wrap the leg in a blanket to provide warmth
d. perform passive range of motion to stimulate circulation to the leg.
a.
the usual medical treatment of raynauds phenomenon involves
a. transluminal balloon angioplasty
b. amputation of affected digits
c. peripheral arterial bypass surgery
d. administration of calcium channel blocers
d
the pt. who is most liketly to have th highest risk for DVT

a. 25 year old obese woman who is 3 days postpartum
b. 25 year old woma who smokes and uses oral contraceptives
c. 62 yoa man who had a strke with left sided hemiparesis
d. 72 yoa man who had a suprapubic prostatectomy for cancer of the prostate
d.
the nurse suspects the presence of a DVT b ased on the findins of
a. paresthesia and coolness of the leg
b. pain in the calf that occurs with exercise
c. generalized edema of the inovled extremity
d. pallor and cyanosis of the inolved extermiety
c.
a priority nursing intevention in the plan of care for the pt. with acute lower extemity deep vein thrombis would include

a. applying elastic compression stockings
b. administering anticoagulants as ordered
c. positioning the leg dependently to promote arterial circulation
d. encouraging wlaking and leg exercises to promte venous return
b.
the nurse instructs the pt discharged on anticoagulant therapy
a. limit intake of vitaminsC
b. report symptoms of nausea to the physician
c. have blood drawn routinely to check electrolytes
d. be aware of and report s/s of bleeding
d.
in planning care and patient teaching for the patient with venous leg ulcers, the nurse recognizes that the most important intervention in healing and control of this conditions is

a. application of antibiotic cream to the ulcers
b. debridemeent of the uclers with skin grafting
c. elevation of hte extremities to increase venous return
d. performance of leg exercised to increase collateral circulation
c.