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15 Cards in this Set

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components of research article
introduction, method, results, discussion and conclusions
introduction
general statement of the problem. includes major variables and target population, provides context for purpose, method and results (may review previous research, lend perspective and make it practical or review theory surrounding topic).
rationale for the study
reasons for doing the study, justifying the IV, DV, specified population and identifying limitations.
reasons for doing the study:
inadequacy of previous research, follow-up of previous research under investigation, resolve conflicting on inconclusive results, provide empirical data for theories, provide research in an unexplored area.
arguments
persuasive rationales built on propositions (claims--"therefore, thus, consequently") and supported by premises (supporting reasons). arguments fail when premises are false or unreliable
types of arguments: induction
general statement from limited observations (inferred, safe bets). arguments by example. an observation is used as a premise (not planned), anecdotal evidence, less trustworthy than experimental
induction cont'd: authority
personal communication used as premise (i heard this at a conference). not very reliable, better if supported in lit
induction cont'd: analogy
different but comparable relationship used as a premise (animals to humans)
types of arguments: deduction
if premises are valid, then proposition must follow (if a-->b-->c, then a-->c)
fallacies
invalid or unsound premises that are incorrect and unsupported.
fallacy of reason
appeals to belief, emotion, popularity
fallacy of distraction
inclusion of irrelevant information (ex: combining two ideas into a single premise)
fallacy of induction
based on stereotypes, unrepresentative sample, poor analogy
statement of the research question
formed by the rationale and supporting lit. Provide a description (who is group a and who is group b), determine a difference (how are the groups different), establish a relationship (how is group a and group b alike)
hypotheses
a tentative generalization or conjecture (what is hoped to be discovered in the experiment)