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156 Cards in this Set

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Should a teacher assign books, or even guide students for students, to read during independent reading?
Yes, sometimes. However, most independent reading should be
-self-selected &
-self-paced
"Ready for RICA: A Test Preperation Guide for California's Reading Competency Assessment" by Zarillo, James J.
Popular with older children: a struggle between good and evil SET IN A FANTASTIC WORLD with a hero or a guest--i.e. Harry Potter.
*setting
Literary genre:
HIGH FANTASY
MORPHOLOGY
(using morphological clues)
The study of word formation clues:
-root words
-prefixes
-affixes
For more: see Chapter 12, Content Area 12: Vocabulary Development, "Ready for RICA: A Test Preperation Guide for California's Reading Competency Assessment" by Zarillo, James J.
Tests phonemic segmentation, the most difficult task. (If a child does well on this, he/she will do well on the rest of the P.A. tests.)
What is the Yopp-Singer Test
Think syllable: HIPPOPOTAMUS
ONSET RIME
h ip
o
p ot
o
m us
What are "Onsets" and "Rimes"
Etymology?
The study of the origin and development of words.
Simile?
Uses "like" or "as" to compare.
"he is AS big AS a house"
"she is LIKE the engergizer bunny.
Diagraphs?
Combinations of letters that make a unique sound unlike the sound made by any of the individual letters within the digraph. e.g.:
ph = /f/
Unaided Retelling
of a story
(what is it used to assess? antonym?)
-TO ASSESS LITERAL COMPREHENSION, have students retell: also called free retelling, free recall
-
-probed recall: if the student doesn't mention everything, ask him (about setting, characters, plot, events...whatever is on your checklist.)
Literary genre:
Contemporary Realistic Fiction
In the real world humorous or serious.
Personification?
Giving human traits to nonhuman bings or inanimate objects.
Consonants?
Speech sounds that occur when airflow is obstructed in some way by your mouth, teeth or lips.
R-controlled Vowels?
Neither long nor short.
I.R.I.?
Informal
Reading
Inventory
Vowels?
When air from your lungs is not stopped (obstructed) by a consonant (teeth, lips, mouth)
(sometimes "w" -- as in cow)
Symbol?
A person, object, situation or action that has two meanings the literal and the symbolic.
Literary Genre:
Modern Fantasy
Stories that are magical or play with laws of nature:
example?
Word identification ability?
Ability to read aloud or decode a word correctly-- (YOU DON'T HAVE TO KNOW THE MEANING)
Alphabetic Principle?
Speech sounds are represented by letters.
Phonetic Alphabet?
Created by linguists so that each phoneme is always represented by the same symbol:
/e/ = ay, ā, ai, ey, ei
Dipthongs?
Glided sounds made by vowel combinations:
oy/oi = boy/oil
(The tongue starts in one position and rapidly moves to another.)
R.I.C.A.?
Reading
Instruciton
Competence
Assissment
Metaphor?
An IMPLIED comparison.
(The road IS a river of moonlight.)
Frustration Reading Level?
Less than 90% of words read correctly
-or-
less than 60% comprehension questions right.
Instructional Reading Level?
90% of words read correctly
60% comprehension questions correct
Independent Reading Level?
The highest passage for which the student reads aloud
95%-words read aloud
90% comprephension questions
Literary Genre:
Informational Books?
Not stories, provide ACCURATE information, i.e.
History, Social Studies...
Literary Genre:
Biographies?
Information books that tell a story of a real persons life.
Content Learning Logs?
A journal used in social studies and science.
Students write own:
1. questions they want answered
2. assignments
3. input info. they have learned
On a grade-level equivalency score: 50% IS AVERAGE!!!
What should I remember about a 3rd grade whose test score is 88% and approx. 5.7?
Information Book?**
The preferred term for a non-fiction book, books that are EXPOSITORY, provide content knowledge.
Auditory Discrimination Test?
(What does it test? HOW?)
It tests phonemic awareness. The teacher talks, the student listens and responds. NO PRINT IS INVOLVED.
Content Area Literary
"The ability to...?"
(Teachers must teach students...)
The ability to learn through reading.
...three reading
-texts
-encyclopedias
-almanacs
-websites
-information books
QAR?
"Question-Answer Relation-ship"
-sorts questions about the text according to where the answer can be found (from RIGHT THERE! to in my head.)
Individual (or small group)
Intervention in Spelling
After always accessing children, put students with specific needs in a small group. PROVIDE DIRECT, EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION. Individual intervention can be very productive sometimes all that is required is a 10-minute 1-on-1 setting to teach a child a bothersome spelling pattern.
SQ3R?
(from 1946)
to help children read in depth text info:
"S"urvey--(skim) look at bold type, titles, etc.
"Q"uestion—write 203 questions they want answered
"R"ead—looking for answers to questions
"R"ecite—say outloud what they learned
"R"eview—use study Q’s & A’s to review
Vowel Digraphs (one sound)
Consonant: digraphs-1 sound
vs. blends-still all sounds
Dipthong: 2 guided sounds
(oy, oi)
2 vowels making 1 sound, i.e.:
AUthor
sprEAd
blUE
Quantitative Analysis
(what is needed?)
(not qualitative: opinion)
Quantitative=uses numbers to categorize student work.
You would need a: RUBRIC
The Matthew Effect
From the Bible, the rich get richer... The more abled students tend to read more, acquiring more vocabulary (making them even more able.)
Hyperbole?
Exaggerated Comparison
A Story's Theme?
A story's important message, usually a comment on the human condiiton. Can be implicit or explicit (stated) (young children can be tought to find the theme)
Grammar?
in CA LA Contnent Standards, called:
Written and Oral English Language Conventions.
RICA--definition:
the rules of English
--sentence structure rules
--cluases (subj. & predicate) (dependent, independent)
--simple vs. compound sentence
--verb usage (i.e., catched, mines)
--punctuation
PreP
Pre-Reading Plan
activate prior knowledge
-associations (record them)
-reflections and resulting new associations
-organize associations
Semantics?
The MEANING words.
Graphemes vs. Phoneme?
Graphemes and ENGLISH letter or letterS that represent phonemes.
grapheme: duCK, Cut
phoneme: /k/
Literary Genre:
Traditional Literature?
1. folktales:
-trickster tales
-fairy tales
-por quoi tales--why mosquitos buzz
2. tall tales (much exageration)
3. fables--teach a lesson
4. myths--to explain the world
Phonogram?
A rime that has the same spelling. These create word families (cat, fat, hat, rat...)
What are the 4 characteristics of a graphic organizer? what is another name?
Also called: structured overview.
1. prepared by the teacher
2. provides an overview of the information.
3. has relatively few words.
4. examined before students read.
There are three instructional activities unique to content-area (information reading).
1. ACTIVATE PRIOR KNOWLEDGE (KWL, Prep.)--also: teach new vocabulary
2. Use a graphic organizer* to preview
*also called: structured overview.
3. Focus student attention with study guides.
Literary Genre:
Historical Fiction
--words to use on RICA--
-Provide direct explict instruction
-Gradual release of responsibility
-Balanced instruction
-Aligned with RICA?
Substance and Form
(define how should a teacher evaluate?)
Substance: WHAT is written or said...Does student:
-stay on topic?
-answer questions directly, to the point?
-provide relevant info (vice extraneous)
form: HOW: use of words and ogranization
-clear? coherent?
-writing mechanics: spelling, punctuation, usage
Discrete and Holistic?
When assessing students SPEECH or writing teachers can look at.
DISCRETE--signle, separate elements (check for spelling, or puncutation)
-or-
HOLISTIC--the entire essay, considering all elements.
Phoneme?
/v/ and /b/ are two different phonemes. c=k and c=s, so "c" is NOT a phoneme. It is SOUND only. "Phonemes are the smalles units of speech,"
**FOR ESSAY PREP**
When would children use
text-to-text
text -to-self? etc.
When responding to literature both orally and in writting.
Literary Response and Analysis.
Teach vocabulary:
Word of the Day
display large
display in context
Dissect meaning
-prefex
-root
-derivation
-related words
enjoy/endure
stress inportance (why selected)
Reciprocal Teaching:
developed to teach 4 reading strategies-- generating questions:
summarizing
clarifying
predicting (in paragraph)
Gradual release of responsiblity:
Process to teach a strategy:
1. describe/define/explain when to use.
2. model using oral think aloud (hmm...I don't understand this, I'd better...")
3. small group and teacher practice strategy
4. independent (guided) practice (teach coaches, corrects)
5. students use indpendently
Use as lesson for teaching vocabulary:
CLUEING
TECHNIQUE
A PARAGRAPH OF 4 SENTENCES:
1. Use word appropriately
2. Describe the characteristics
3. Define using children's language.
4. Ask a question using the word.
I & I:
Use it to get reluctant readers to read
I-NTEREST(over)
and
I-NDEPENDENT READING LEVEL
**YOU** pick books: help him set started.
I-NTEREST
--hopefully interest can be sparked by something in the curriculum: science, social studies
so have 20-30 related books in the room.
COMPREHENSIVE reading program?
-teacher directed instruction, follwed by massive amounts of reading
CURRICULUM INTEGRATION
CAP LESSON:
SHARED BOOK EXPERIENCE
**pedictable book88
Intro (pre-read)
-book orientation
-read dramatically
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND==
Address the needs of all children.
What are ways teachers can assess oral and written information?
1. reaches AUDIENCE achieves PURPOSE
2. SUBSTANCE--direct, to the point, no extraneous FORM--clear, coherent? puctuation
3. DISCRETE and (assess one element) HOLISTIC--consider all elements of substance & form
4. QUALITATIVE and QUANTITATIVE: rubric, numbers
Give the child follow-up activities for practice.
CASE STUDIES
(think lesson plan: guided practice, independent practice, MI's)
On-going analysis of multiple examples
Gradual release of responsiblity
How can a (teacher assess oral language?
for test: think, how could a teacher TEACH each one of those?
1. small group literature discussion
-Anecdotal notes
2. language play
-Charts, poems
-Anecdotal notes
3. Drama based on literature
-Can children learn their parts? Change speaking voice?
4. Answers to questions can kids summarize coherently?
P.78 #42!
Expository Modes *
Our Younges Writers *
How to Teach ELLs *
Preproduction *
P.80
Early Production *
Speech Emergent *
Inter. Fluency *
Sheltered Reading *
P. 82
Def. Vocab *
Preview *
Graphic Organizers *
Charts *
Teacher Model *
Other Writing *
Transfer L1, L2 *
P.88
Contextual Clues *
Morphemic Analysis *
P.90
Encourage Word *
Synonyms/Ant *
Word of Day *
Idioms/Puns *
Using Dictionary *
P.93
Intro *
Definitions:
Grammar X
Clause X
Sentence Structure X
Sentence X X
Usage X
Puntuation Marks X
Assess ELL X
Tests X
Eng Lang Structure X P95
X X X X X X X X X PP 96/97
What are the four stages of the writing process?
1. Pre-writing
a-choose/narrow topic
b-consider purpose/
audience
c-outline: main idea,
organize supporting
details: - ways to do #C
above: talk to
clasmates, draw a
picture, do a quickwrite
2. Draft (using pre-write
product)
3. Revising/Editing edited by
self, peer, teacher, then
revised.
4. Final Draft-not always
necessary after Stage 3
How can a teacher assess students use of correct grammar? (MOST important plus kinds of tests)
MOST IMPORTANT
ONGOING analysis of multiple examples of student writing tests
1. scrambled paragraph
2. error analysis (on commer-
cial tests its this is an
example of a sentence)
3. fill-in-the-blank w/one
of two choices (who, whom)
(your, yours)
Rather than reading for enjoyment, what are 3 ways children need to learn to read informational (content-area) texts?
1. SKIM--quickly looking at
the whole thing to pre-
view or review
2. SCAN--rapid reading to
get specific details
3. In-depth reading aiming
for full understanding
(SQ3R)
Why DEAR? How to encourage word consciousness:
Create maps, research words history, puns, call attn. to author's use, look for examples everyday the more kids read the more vocabulary they learn.
Teach vocabulary only 5-10 min. daily so they can be reading.
What are five reading-related oral language activities that teachers should implement?
1. language play (chorally)
2. drama (children must
adapt their speaking
manner)
3. small group discussions
of books (3-6 kids)
4. Answering questions help
children learn to think
on their feet
5. Oral Report after contect-
area-reading
What is the goal of reading instruction?
The goal is: to develop reding competence among ALL our students, including ELLs and special needs
What are ways to teach English Language structure (contractions) and conventions?
1. DOL-Daily Oral Language
2. Review portfolio have
individual conference
3. Language Activities
-sentence extension, com-
bining
-model:your own language,
reading aloud
4. Proofreading(have kids
do)
What does RICA say should be the focus of Content Area II?
Supporting reading thru oral & written language dev. the INTER-RELATIONSHIPS among:
reading writing
speaking listening
how instruction in oral (speaking) & writing can help reading proficiency.
What are 4 reading repair strategies?
1. re-reading
2. asking the teacher a
question
3. use a dictionary
4. look at an illustration
What are 4 categories of activities to expand (teach) meaning vocabulary?
1. increase amt/types of
books
2. teach important words
3. teach them to analyze
words: contextual
morphemic
4. encourage word-conscious-
ness
Small group discussions of books enable kids to develop oral language skills.
-How many kids?
-What is teachers role?
-6 RULES of productive dis-
cussions
# of kids 3-6
teacher fole: At first model good group conversation skills
Later: hands off facilitator
6 rules:
1. don't interrupt
2. don't dominate
3. address ideas, not people
4. clarify others comments
5. expand on others: comments
6. state our perspective
clearly & support them w/
details
What are 4 ways to assess ORAL language development?
1. small group literature
discussions (take annecdo-
tal notes)
2. language play (primary
grades)
3. drama based on literature
-do children learn their
parts & change their,
speaking manner?
4. answers to questions--
Can students summarize?
Teachers can design their own test for testing meaning vocabulary name 4 types--correlate to commercial tests
1. The target word is in a
sentence. The multiple
choice answers are phases
(never a word in isolation.)
2. choose a synonym
3. analogy
head: body as
______: mountain (peak)
4. match definition to word
What are 4 ways to assess student independent reading?
1. INTEREST INVENTORY-don't
forget to talk to them
directly!
2. Individual conferences at
LEAST every 2 weeks-don't
forget to talk to them
directly!
3. student journals or read-
ing logs that include a
personal response
4. anecdotal records about
reading behavior
What is the purpose of a study guide?
What are 5 kinds?
The purpose is to focus student attention on key info in the text.
Types:
1. based on text structure
(fill-in-the-blanks)
2. Key questions study guide
(can include page number
of answer).
3. three-level study guide
4. learning logs (can provide
prompts)
5. data retrival charts
What are 4 ways teachers can promote high quality children's books.
1. reading aloud and having
related books on hand
(sequels, same genre).
2. Booktalks (inc. read an
excerpt)
3. BOOKS CONNECETED TO OTHER
AREAS OF THE CURRICULUM
(FICTION & NON FICTION)
4. trips to the library
What are 3 lessons that could be taught on using encyclopedias?
1. info is organized by
topic (entries) in
different volumes
2. how to use special
features:
- index
- guide words
- cross references
3. How to scan for specific
information
What are five categories of multi-sensory techniques that teach spelling?
1. visual: looking & repeated
writing (doesn't work for
all)
2. visual use of color-use
crayons to highlight
spelling patterns
3. auditory: child says the
letter aloud as he writes
4. kinesthetic-write large
letters in the air
5. tactile-use sandpaper,
window screens,& shaving
cream
What are 2 ways of assessing spelling?
1. in isolation
- spelling tests
2. in context
-in everyday writing
What 4 types of spelling words should students be expected to learn?
1. content area words
2. common-need words
-words that several
children have difficulty
spelling
3. high frequency words
especially those who have
irregular patterns
4. groups of words that have
commonly occuring ortho-
graphic patterns.
RICA specifies children must be exposed to many genres, and should be taught to recognize the features or common elements of each.
What are the 8 most common genres?
1. traditional literature
(folk and fairy tales)
2. modern fantasy
3. high fantasy
4. science fiction
5. contemporary realistic
fiction
6. historical fiction
7. biography
8. informational ("non-
fiction") books
per RICA: What are the 6 reading comprehension strategies? What would I do when reading THIS book to make sure I understand?
1. SELF-MONITORING-"do I
understand?"
2. RE-READING-a repair
strategy
3. SUMMARIZING-can retell by
highlighting the important
information
4. NOTETAKING/OUTLINING (like
these notecards)
5. MAPPING-put in chrono-
logical order
6. LEARNING LOGS-record your
thoughts about a book.
What are 3 word identification strategies?
1. morphology
2. context clues
3. sight words
What is thje difference between how phonemic and phonic awareness can be taught?
phonemic-
sounds without print
phonic- w/print (letters, or
letter combinations)
Why is it good when children are able to read with
automaticity?
They don't get bogged down w/
decoding words.
They are able to focus their attention on understanding what they have read.
Name 2 standardized, comercially published vocab tests.
CAT-Calif. Achievement Tests
SAT-Stanford Achievement Test
What are the 4 stages of spelling development?
(Children often are in between or jump back & forth)
1. pre-phonetic
-no letters or random
letters
2. phonetic-sometimes use one
(correct) letter per sound
("ALL PHONEMES HAVE A
GRAPHEME")
3. Transitional-most ortho-
graphic English patterns
4. Conventional-almost all
words spelled right
What are the three levels of reading comprehension?
(according to RICA)
1. LITERAL-identifying the
main idea, important de-
tails, sequence of events,
cause-and-effect relation-
ships.
2. INFERENTIAL-inferring the
main idea (when not
stated),
3. EVALUATED-recognizing
author's bias, propagan-
da, distinguishing fact
from fiction.
What is your goal as a teacher w/respect to children's spelling development?
Identify student's current spelling stage and move them through it to the next stage.
Name a game that would be good for sound blending.
The auditory equivalent of Word Scramble
"/a/, /t/, and /b/"
What could they make?
What is RICA's opinion on Readers Workshop or Writer's Workshop?
-impractical to use every day
-isn't a format conducive to the amount of direct, explicit teaching required by RICA guidelines.
-maybe one or two days a week.
CLOZE is short for _____ & cannot be used with tests written for ________ grade or below. How many blanks?
CLOSURE
(it's a test)
2nd grade
-not enough info
50 blanks: every 5th word in a photocopy of the text.
Give Your opinion of invented spelling.
1. misunderstood--DO NOT USE
phrase on RICA test
2. it happens as teachers
encourage children to
take risks as they write
3. it is NEVER a goal of
teaching
The goal is: move each child toward conventional spelling by mastering pattersn of English.
What did I do right and wrong about Anthony Reynoso (an ELL-English Language Learner)?
Right: intro vocabulary

Wrong: did not
*activate
*have kids think about, and
*organize
their prior knowledge
could have used KWL, PreP (Pre-Reading Plan)
How many questions should a teacher write to assess Reading Comprehension using QAR'S (Question-answer relationship)?
Twelve (12):
Three for each of the four catagories of where, answers can be found.
1. "Right There" on one page
2. "Think & Search" in more
than one place
3. "Author & You" - infer an
answer from your own
experience & the book
4. "On My Own" - NOT in the
book-opinion
What are the 5 kinds of vocabularies?
1. listening
2. speaking
3. writing
4. reading (sight)
5. meaning vocabulary
What 2 types of words should be taught as whole units? ("sight words")
1. irregular spelling
patterns
2. most frequently used (in
print)
Why should students be taught to develop a sense of story structure? (3 reasons)
-they will store details/info
more efficiently
-better remember details
from the whole story
-recall details more
accurately
What is most highly predictive of success in learning to read? Why?
PHONEMIC AWARENESS-
because it is the foundation for understanding the sound/symbol relationship of English,
which will actually be taught
through phonics lessons.
Name 5 ways to help children improve reading fluency.
1. repeated reading (espe-
cially poems)
2. assisted reading
-buddy read (each supports
the other)
3. choral reading
-more than 2 children
(often entire class)
4. Reader's Theater
5. teach improved word
identification skills
What are 5 kinds of journals kids could write...
"as part of their experiences
w/literature & content-area
texts..."
1. Personal Journals
-not for teacher to share
2. Dialogue Journal (could be
shared w/a classmate to
respond to)
3. Reading Response Log
4. Double Entry Journal
5. Content Learning Logs
What are 4 sources of sight words?
1. high-frequency words(see
word lists)
2. words wwoith irregular
spellings
3. high-interest words that
kids want to use in
writing (Burger King)
4. concept/theme words
Name 4 ways a teacher can assess content area literacy.
1. CLOZE test
2. text structures
-have kids fill in a Venn
diagram or ther "skeleton"
3. multi-level questions
(QAR)--right there, think-&
-search, author and you,
on my own.
4. teacher observation/
anecdotal records
True or false:
1. commercially published
spelling books can be used.
2. children should have 10-20
spelling words.
1. TRUE-at least for some
kids. Maybe not for all
kids in the classroom.
2. FALSE-some students need 4
or 5. Some students can
handle 10-20 words if the
words are appropriate and
sound methods are used to
teach.
Name 4 Concepts of Print.
(children must be explicitly
TAUGHT if they don't know.)
1. print carries meaning
2. directionality & tracking
3. there is a difference
between a letter, a word
and a sentence (know
boundaries)
4. book orientation which is
cover? title? author's
name? where does the story
start?
Name 7 ways of using
"Implicit" teaching of phonemic awareness. Also called _________ or_______.
How do you then teach.
1. word play 2. chants
books
3. rhymes 4. songs
5. games 6. alliteration
7. tongue-twisters
Also called: "indirect"
"embedded"
(Teach, & then ask ?'s: "Did you notice?"
What is needed to verify student responses to a reading interest inventory?
Why?
What? -other data gathered from student reading logs teacher records of indivi-dual conferences.
Why? --students lie about how much they read and if they like it to please the teacher.
Should a teacher assign books, or guide a student to a specific book, for students to read during independent reading?
Yes, sometimes. However, most
independent reading should be:
-self-selected &
-self paced
How do authors create mood?
(define mood)
For older readers:
descripture words
foreshadowing
For younger reader:
-color
-illustrations
Definition: the feeling you
have when reading
Name 3 ways a teacher can provide frequent opportun-ities for kids to share about what they've read.
1. Reading Journals: must be
INTERACTIVE. Student
writes; teacher writes
back.
2. Individual conferences be-
tween teacher & student.
3. Small groups of students
(little teacher role
beyond asking questions):
"-literature circles,-res- ponse groups,-grand con-
versations,-book clubs"
What are 5 ways(standard patterns or structures) used to get across info in expository texts?
1. cause & effect-esp.science
& social studies
2. problem & solution
3. compare/contrast
(events,people, phenomena)
4. sequence
5. description
What is a 3-level study guide?
*written by teacher
*true/false-statement &
questions
Aligned w/RICA--3 levels of comprehension.
1. literal
2. evaluative
3. inferential
Why should students be taught to develop a sense of story structure? (3 reasons)
-they will store details/info
more efficiently
-better remember details
from the whole story
-recall details more
accurately
What is most highly predictive of success in learning to read? Why?
PHONEMIC AWARENESS-
because it is the foundation for understanding the sound/symbol relationship of English,
which will actually be taught
through phonics lessons.
Name 5 ways to help children improve reading fluency.
1. repeated reading (espe-
cially poems)
2. assisted reading
-buddy read (each supports
the other)
3. choral reading
-more than 2 children
(often entire class)
4. Reader's Theater
5. teach improved word
identification skills
What are 5 kinds of journals kids could write...
"as part of their experiences
w/literature & content-area
texts..."
1. Personal Journals
-not for teacher to share
2. Dialogue Journal (could be
shared w/a classmate to
respond to)
3. Reading Response Log
4. Double Entry Journal
5. Content Learning Logs
What are 4 sources of sight words?
1. high-frequency words(see
word lists)
2. words wwoith irregular
spellings
3. high-interest words that
kids want to use in
writing (Burger King)
4. concept/theme words
Name 4 ways a teacher can assess content area literacy.
1. CLOZE test
2. text structures
-have kids fill in a Venn
diagram or ther "skeleton"
3. multi-level questions
(QAR)--right there, think-&
-search, author and you,
on my own.
4. teacher observation/
anecdotal records
True or false:
1. commercially published
spelling books can be used.
2. children should have 10-20
spelling words.
1. TRUE-at least for some
kids. Maybe not for all
kids in the classroom.
2. FALSE-some students need 4
or 5. Some students can
handle 10-20 words if the
words are appropriate and
sound methods are used to
teach.
Name 4 Concepts of Print.
(children must be explicitly
TAUGHT if they don't know.)
1. print carries meaning
2. directionality & tracking
3. there is a difference
between a letter, a word
and a sentence (know
boundaries)
4. book orientation which is
cover? title? author's
name? where does the story
start?
Name 7 ways of using
"Implicit" teaching of phonemic awareness. Also called _________ or_______.
How do you then teach.
1. word play 2. chants
books
3. rhymes 4. songs
5. games 6. alliteration
7. tongue-twisters
Also called: "indirect"
"embedded"
(Teach, & then ask ?'s: "Did you notice?"
What is needed to verify student responses to a reading interest inventory?
Why?
What? -other data gathered from student reading logs teacher records of indivi-dual conferences.
Why? --students lie about how much they read and if they like it to please the teacher.
Should a teacher assign books, or guide a student to a specific book, for students to read during independent reading?
Yes, sometimes. However, most
independent reading should be:
-self-selected &
-self paced
How do authors create mood?
(define mood)
For older readers:
descripture words
foreshadowing
For younger reader:
-color
-illustrations
Definition: the feeling you
have when reading
Name 3 ways a teacher can provide frequent opportun-ities for kids to share about what they've read.
1. Reading Journals: must be
INTERACTIVE. Student
writes; teacher writes
back.
2. Individual conferences be-
tween teacher & student.
3. Small groups of students
(little teacher role
beyond asking questions):
"-literature circles,-res- ponse groups,-grand con-
versations,-book clubs"
What are 5 ways(standard patterns or structures) used to get across info in expository texts?
1. cause & effect-esp.science
& social studies
2. problem & solution
3. compare/contrast
(events,people, phenomena)
4. sequence
5. description
What is a 3-level study guide?
*written by teacher
*true/false-statement &
questions
Aligned w/RICA--3 levels of comprehension.
1. literal
2. evaluative
3. inferential
Name one textbook supporter/company for part-to-whole & whole-to-part. (Which is analytic? Which is synthetic?)
How can you decide?
Whole-to-part=Houghton-Mifflin-(analytic)
Part-to-whole=Open Court-(syntetic)
Try if it works, stay with it. If it doesn't change.
According to RICA, teachers must teach--PHONICS!
How?
1. __________________
a. _____ c. _____
b. _____ d. _____
2. __________________
1. Systematic and organized:
sound-symbol relationships
in sequence.
-simple to complex units
a. phonemes
b. onset/rime
c. letter combinations
d. syllables
2. direct & explicit to small
groups of children.
What are 3 specific instruc-tional approaches to help students analyze and respond to literature (per RICA)?
How can you get kids telling you about what they know?
1. Guided reading--encourage
kids to talk about what
they have read.
2. Reading logs or journals
-interactive or double
sided entry.
3. Discussions about litera-
ture.
-facilitated, NOT DOMINAT- ED, by teacher
What are the phonemic aware-
ness tasks?
(How many are there?)
There are 6:
1. phoneme (sound) matching
2. sound isolation
3. sound blending
4. sound substitution
5. sound deletion
6. sound segmentation
"Older students should know the functions of setting in a story:"
1. to clarify conflict
2. to serve as an antagonist
3. amplify character
4. establish mood
5. serve as a symbol
Name 5 IMPLICIT ways to teach concepts about print.
1. Read aloud to students
2. Shared Book Experience
-big book -predictable book
3. LEA (Language Experience
Approach)
4. Use environmental print
5. Provide a print rich
environment:
lables/captions, morning
agenda calendar message,
mail boxes
Teaching kids phonics can be done in the same ways as teaching kids about Concepts of Print. What classroom activities can be used to do implicit/embedded/indirect teaching of phonics?
1. Shared Book Experience
(big books)= LEA &
informal phonics lesson
2. Choral reading of rhymes &
charts
3. morning message
4. environmental print
5. children's names (kid of
the day)
6. read the room
Describing & Analyzing Story Elements:
What are 3 literary elements a student should know about in a story? What should they know?
1. CHARACTER
*protagonist: main char-
acter, pushes TOWARD
something
*antagonist: blocks prota-
gonist
2. SETTING
*TIME and place
*can be BACKGROUND or IN-
TEGRAL
3. PLOT
"the sequence of events"
usually: intro, conflict,
climax (resolution of
conflict), wrap-up (de-
nouncement)
What are 3 ways to teach sigt words?
1. word walls
-charts w/related words,
ABC wall
2. word banks
-personally kept collec- tion (notecards, diction-
ary)
3. explicit, direct teaching
(whole-to-part only)
Where are disagreements over how English Language Arts should be taught, solved?
English Language Arts Content Standards for California schools
-under-
"Written & Oral English Language Conventions?
RICA: "should be taught directly & explicitly"
What are 5 advantages of independent reading?
(That is, what good things do kids gain (learn/improve)when they read on their own?
1. FAMILIARITY W/LANGUAGE
PATTERNS
2. increases fluency
3. increases vocabulary
4. broadens knowledge in
content areas
5. MOTIVATES FURTHER READING
What is a reading interest inventory?
How should it be administered?
What 2 things should be determined?
DEF.: a survey of student reading BEHAVIOR
How? Orally to younger kids in writing to older kids
To determine:
1. How much a child values
reading as a recreational
acitivity
2. The child's reading pre-
ferences
What do RICA Standards think students should demonstrate in their oral and written responses to literature to show their understanding?
1. Do they incorporate liter-
ary elements of setting,
characters, plot (for
older kids: plot devices)
2. Do they make personal
connections? (text-to-self)
3. Do they provide specific
examples to support their
oral or written
responses?(specific events,
details)
What is the simplest assessment of oral & written language?
think: AUDIENCE & PURPOSE
Does the comment (speaking) or writing achieve the person's goal/PURPOSE by reaching the AUDIENCE.
(shopping list vs. job application vs. graduation speech.)
Writing Portfolio--
Why keep?
How?
What is included?
Why?-long-term growth can be
seen
How?-in a manila folder
What?-keep selections by
both teacher & students
own favorites
- journal responses
- stories
- essays
- written answers to reading
lesson questions
What are the 4 types of phonics tests a teacher should give a student?
1. decode in isolation (can
use nonsense words)
2. decode in context
3. encode in isolation (the
traditional spelling test)
4. encode in context (have
them write sentences or a
short paragraph.
Given the 4 stages of spelling instruction, what should lessons focus on in each stage?
1. PREPHONETIC-CAP, Phonetic
awareness, aquire the IDEA
of sounds in words
2. PHONETIC-phonics: sound/
symbol relationships, on-
sets, rimes, affixes
3. TRANSITIONAL-morphonology,
etymology, alternative
spellings for a sound
4. CONVENTIONAL-expanding
their highly irregular
words & specific content
area words.
PRACTICE-have them use
words in context by writing
and writing...
Ways to teach story structure?
1. story mapping--a visual
diagram spiderwebs, fish
bones, other graphic
organizers
2. Story grammars-an outline
("setting: problem:
details: events: resolu-
tion")
3. Story frames-students fill
in the blanks:
first______, then_______,
next,______, finally_____.
Name 1 characteristic of a good speller.
1. children who have mastered
PHONICS skills, and know
which letters are used to
represent sounds.
What are 5 alternatives to teach new vocabulary?
(other than dictionaries, or
display and tell)
1. clueing technique teacher
creates 4 specific
sentences
2. contextual redefinition
have a small group of stu-
dents guess/reach consen-
sus by looking at context
3. semantic mapping
4. word sort (list-group-
label)
5. semantic feature analysis
What are the 4 aspects of a comprehensive reading pro-
gram?
1. Assessment (using multi-
measures & ongoing)
2. Develop phonological
awareness
3. Develop reading comprehen-
sion & independent reading

4. Support oral & written
language development--
understanding of relation-
ships among: reading,
writting, & oral language;
development of vocab. &
understanding of English
language structure
What are five ways teachers can support parents to support Reading At Home.
1. Encourage SSR at home--
EVERYBODY reads, even
parents (no phone, no TV)
2. Provide Lists of library
books that support in-class
curriculum
3. Provide info on the local
public library
4. USE THEIR L1 with L2
PARENTS (ESP. BOOK IDEAS)
5. Support parent literacy
programs.