Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Messages that rely on verbal/nonverbal symbols that intentionally influence social Attitudes, Values, Beliefs and Actions
-Makes important, substantive arguments about consequential matters of PUBLIC CONCERN
-Printing press and Renaissance gave rise to rhetoric in letters and pamphlets
-Enlightenment it was seen as a means to debate truth
-Ultimately means by which social truth is established and decisions are made
events, time periods, settings, audiences, authors, social attitudes... influence the construction of the message
Herbert Wilchelns (1925)
Distinguishes communication as field separate from English
•Separates speeches from writing (literary criticism of oratory)
Critical Root
Ernest Wrage (1937)
Decreases concerns about elocution and increases interest in textualism
•Begin to study speeches from long time ago
•Old speeches offer clues to understand the social ideas and attitudes of the era and rhetor
Critical Root
Wayland Maxfield Parrish (1954)
“It is the responsibility of the rhetor to analyze the causes of the speech’s alleged success or failure as these are discoverable in the speech itself”
Critical Root
Edwin Black (1965)
“Criticism is what critics do”
•Critics should not be confined to one method; by engaging in criticism the critic legitimizes a certain method
Critical Root
Toulmin Model
Claim-Conclusion want audience to accept


Warrant-Links data to claim; renders Backing

Rebuttal- "unless"

Qualifier- Degree of certainty/probability; attched to claim
Toumin sought to understand how people argue in real life and set about observing closely the patterns of argument
Critical Thinking
Reasonable, reflective thinking hat is focused on deciding what to believe or do
-Marked by skills of classification and questioning
Related to message analysis and rhetorical criticism
characterization of the message under analysis
•Present the essence of the message
•Investigate context
•Specific circumstances
•Similar circumstances/messages
•Rhetor & Audience
Critical Thinking
systematic discovery, identification, and articulation of various parts of the messages and their relationship to one another
•Name parts of the message (Classical? Dramatistic? etc.)
•Look for rhetorical patterns like repetition, sequencing, omission, and anomalies to those patterns
Critical Thinking
conclusions drawn from the Analysis
•Answers “so what?”
•Inferences = reasonable conclusions
Critical Thinking
use of stated criteria to determine the merit, worth, significance or effectiveness of the rhetorical strategies in a message
•Use of adjectives
Critical Thinking
Political Speaking that urges to do or not do something
Concerned with Future
Aristotle's Genre
Speaking that attacks or defends someone
Concerned with the Past; refers to things done
Aristotle's Genre
Ceremonial Speaking with praise or blame in view of things existing; useful to recall the past
Concerned with Present
Aristotle's Genre
NeoAristotelian Criticism
Pluralistic attitude to the history and view of an artifact or intrinsic work
Canons of Rhetoric
Process of selecting arguments, illustrations, facts, testimony, documents, images... to be persuasive
Canon of Rhetoric
Ordering and sequencing the parts chosen at invention, that will most impact on the audience
Canon of Rhetoric
Selecting the most appropriate vocab and phrases to make sense to the audience
Canon of Rhetoric
Creation of long lasting impression and understanding of the message in the minds of audience
Canon of Rhetoric
Presentation of voice and gestures for appropriate means of presenting effectively
Canon of Rhetoric
Enthymematic Argument
Constructed from premises that have already been argued, offering degree of certainty
Kind of syllogism in which part is left unstated, invites audience to fill the missing part
Favored by Aristotle instead of Inductive Argument which draws a universal conclusion from variety similar happenings
Perelman's Audience
-Focused on meaning people give to everyday argument
-People are persuaded to take a side rather than discover the truth
-Persuasion is not Linear but Back-and-Forth
-Universal Audience: people who are rational and competent with respect to issues addressed
-People are pluralistic species with various intensity
New Rhetoric
Lloyd Bitzer
developed Rhetorical Situation calling for messages to conform to context