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57 Cards in this Set

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Plato
Most famous student of Socrates, first great enemy of rhetoric
Plato
Certain and uncertain truths can be discovered about every question
Plato
Dialectic is the method of inquiry that can lead to true knowledge
Socrates
Rhetoric does not lead to power if it does not land to knowledge; dialectic is the preferred type of discourse that can lead to knowledge
Dialectic
two people talking with questioning and answering... generates understanding concerning the ideal form.
Plato
Rhetoric is not an art, its a knack. Rhetoric does not confer true power. Rhetoric as a protection against suffering wrong is of little importance. Rhetoric as a means of escaping a deserved punishment is equally as wrong.
Socrates
Rhetoric is not an art, it is just some natural knack someone has in the art of persuasion.
Socrates
To commit a crime and escape the punishment.
Cicero
Three things are requisite for finding argument- genius, method and diligence.
Cicero
"We have to work the minds of the judges, that love may be gained if you seem to advocate what is advantageous to the persons before whom you are speaking."
Cicero
A speech is an assembly of wise men. A speech to the people requires all force, weight, and various colorings of eloquence, for persuading, nothing is more desirable than worth"
Roman Rhetoric
Reason and speech are two gifts given to man- dialectic is the theory of reason, grammar and rhetoric applies to speech.
Quintillian
Stressed adapting to an audience rather than following rigid rhetorical methods
Quintillian
Says speaker should do what is expedient and becoming.
Quintillian
Known for canons of rhetoric.
Quintillian
Perfect orator should be:
A) a good man
B) Not having only gifts of speech but also character
Quintillian
An orator speaking has to be distinguished and not just a good orator
Quintillian
Believes the teacher should kindly pave the path for students to turn into good people who can become orators.
Ramus
16th century French scholar who only thought of rhetoric in terms of style, and not as in being able to generate argument.
Ramus
Main point is to separate reason from rhetoric
Ramus
Believes the art of dialectic and rhetoric have been confused by Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintillian.
Quintillian
"The orator cannot be perfect unless he is a good man. Consequently I demand from him not only outstanding skill in speaking but all the virtues of the character." The characteristics are justice, courage, self-control, prudence, etc...
Ramus
"A definition of any artist which covers more than is included in the rules of his art is included in the rules of his art is superfluous and defective. RHETORIC IS NOT AN ART THAT EXPLAINS ALL THE VIRTUOUS QUALITIES OF CHARACTER.
Bacon
Talks about idols (of the tribe, market place, cave and theatre
Idols of cave
Idols of the individual man
Idols in market place
formed by interaction of men
Locke
English Philosopher from 1632-1704 who argued that language often posed obstacles to understanding and needed to be improved or purified to make words match reality more closely.
Locke
Disdained rhetoric because he believed it was taught incorrectly in his day. for example: he believed it resulted naturally from practice and habit.
Locke
"Since the links between language and reality were created rather than natural, the link could be created faultily."
Burke (Grammar of Motives)
Concerned with basic form of thought who used five terms for investigation: act, scene, agent, agency and purpose.
Act
Names that took place in thought or deed
Scene
The background of the act, the situation in which it occured
Agent
the person that performed the act
Agency
the instruments he or she used
Purpose
Why he or she said or did it
20th century
Electronic Media allows for a more widespread audience... allows for power to be more widespread and have more an immediate impact. Rhetorical margin has shrunk. new minority groups have impact with rhetoric. Public opinion is more important than ever. Audiences are more active than ever cause they have access to discourse so readily and easily.
Vico
Born in Italy, he considered himself self-taught and was a professor of eloquence and he trained law students.
Vico
Examined the growing respect for scientific, mathematical and logical methods of ancients, the classical Greeks and Romans.
Vico
believes there is a need to integrate and unify different kinds of learning. complained that students of his time lacked coherence in learning.
Olbrects-Tyteca and Perelman
Believed dialectic and rhetoric were counterparts just like Aristotle thought. Dialectic provided an underlying theory of how argument works while rhetoric provided a theory of how argument might be applied in particular circumstances so as to influence human decisions.
O-T and P
Use traditional theory and apply it to the modern centuries... stress the nature of argument as responsive to previous statements and anticipatory of future replies. Speak of the universal audience as well.
O-T and P
says how an audience is bigger than just the direct audience, that it goes to all the other people internationally.
O-T and P
says it is the audience which has the major role in determining the quality of an argument and the behavior of an orator.
Campbell
Major theorist of women's rhetoric who based her work upon recovery of female work that was lost or overlooked.
Campbell
If a woman did speak, she was trying to be a man. If she could hold her own she was viewed as unwomanly, masculine, aggressive and cold.
Foucault
French scholar who studied the ways that societies use discourse to create structures of relationships and empower and disempower people.
Foucault
Says people fear the world of discourse and that there is anxiety to it.
Maxim
a statement about things that are objects of action. conclusions of enthymemes
Inartistic proofs
things there are
Artistic proofs
things that the speaker creates in the audience.ethos pathos and logos
Deliberative rhetoric
Art of persuading the audience to take action
Forensic Rhetoric
Making a case in court of law
Epideictic Rhetoric
use of powerfully effective language to praise or blame someone
Genres of rhetoric
deliberative, forensic, epideictic
5 canons of rhetoric
Invention, arrangement, memory, style, delivery
Vico
Criticism is the art of true speech
Grammar of motives
Act, Scene, Agent, Agency, Purpose