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32 Cards in this Set

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Active Tag
RFID tag with a battery that is used to power the microchip’s circuitry and transmit a signal to a reader. Can be read from 100 feet or more away. $10 and up,used for tracking expensive items over long ranges.
Antenna
The conductive element that enables the tag to send and receive data. Passive tags usually have a coiled antenna that couples with the coiled antenna of the reader to form a magnetic field. The tag draws power from this field.
Anti-collision
A general term used to cover methods of preventing radio waves from one device from interfering with radio waves from another. Anti-collision algorithms are also used to read more than one tag in the same reader's field.
Back scatter
A method of communication between tags and readers. RFID tags using back-scatter technology reflect back to the reader a portion of the radio waves that reach them. The reflected signal is modulated to transmit data. Tags using back scatter technology can be either passive or active, but either way, they are more expensive than tags that use inductive coupling.
Electronic Product Code
A 96-bit code, created by the Auto-ID Center (now EPCGlobal). The EPC has digits to identify the manufacturer, product category and the individual item.
Error correcting code
A code stored on an RFID tag to enable the reader to figure out the value of missing or garbled bits of data. It's needed because a reader might misinterpret some data from the tag and think a Rolex watch is actually a pair of socks.
European Article Numbering (EAN)
The bar code standard used throughout Europe, Asia and South America. It is administered by EAN International.
Frequency
The number of repetitions of a complete wave within one second. 1 Hz equals one complete waveform in one second. 1KHz equals 1,000 waves in a second. RFID tags use low, high, ultra-high and microwave frequencies. Each frequency has advantages and disadvantages that make them more suitable for some applications than for others.
High-frequency tags
They typically operate at 13.56 MHz. They can be read from about 10 feet away and transmit data faster. But they are consume more power than low-frequency tags.
Inductive coupling
A method of transmitting data between tags and readers in which the antenna from the reader picks up changes in the tag’s antenna.
Low-frequency tags
They typically operate at 125 KHz. The main disadvantages of low-frequency tags are they have to be read from within three feet and the rate of data transfer is slow. But they are less expensive and less subject to interference than high- frequency tags.
Microwave tags
Radio frequency tags that operate at 5.8 GHz. They have very high transfer rates and can be read from as far as 30 feet away, but they use a lot of power and are expensive.
Object Name Service (ONS)
An Auto-ID Center (now EPCGlobal)-designed system for looking up unique Electronic Product Codes and pointing computers to information about the item associated with the code. ONS is similar to the Domain Name Service, which points computers to sites on the Internet.
Passive tag
RFID tag without a battery. When radio waves from the reader reach the chip’s antenna, it creates a magnetic field. The tag draws power from the field and is able to send back information stored on the chip. Today, simple passive tags cost around 50 cents to several dollars.
Physical Markup Language (PML)
An Auto-ID Center (now EPC Global)-designed method of describing products in a way computers can understand. PML is based on the widely accepted XML.
Power level
The amount of RF energy radiated from a reader or an active tag. The higher the power output, the longer the read range, but most governments regulate power levels to avoid interference with other devices.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
A method of identifying unique items using radio waves. Typically, a reader communicates with a tag, which holds digital information in a microchip. But there are chipless forms of RFID tags that use material to reflect back a portion of the radio waves beamed at them.
Read rate
The maximum rate at which data can be read from a tag expressed in bits or bytes per second.
Reader
(also called an interrogator) The reader communicates with the RFID tag via radio waves and passes the information in digital form to a computer system.
Read-only tags
Tags that contain data that cannot be changed unless the microchip is reprogrammed electronically.
Read range
The distance from which a reader can communicate with a tag.
Read-write tags
RFID tags that can store new information on its microchip.
RFID tag
A microchip attached to an antenna that picks up signals from and sends signals to a reader. Come in many forms. RFID tags can be active tags, passive tags and semi-passive tags.
Semi-passive tag
Similar to active tags, but the battery is used to run the microchip's circuitry but not to communicate with the reader. Some semi-passive tags sleep until they are woken up by a signal from the reader, which conserves battery life.
Ultra-high frequency (UHF)
Typically, tags that operate between 866 MHz to 930 MHz. They can send information faster and farther than high- and low-frequency tags.
Uniform Code Council (UCC)
The nonprofit organization that overseas the Uniform Product Code, the barcode standard used in North America.
Uniform Product Code (UPC)
The barcode standard used in North America. It is administered by the Uniform Code Council.
Orientation
Refers to the positioning of the tag with regards to the antenna
Savant
Savant is a software technology specification defined by EPC global to manage the data flow from readers and make up the "nervous system" of the EPC Global Network. Products with this functionality can be known as "Edge Servers" or "Event Managers"
EPCGlobal
EPCglobal is a joint venture between EAN International and the Uniform Code Council (UCC). A not-for-profit organisation entrusted by industry to establish and support the Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network as the global standard for immediate, automatic, and accurate identification of any item in the supply chain of any company, in any industry, anywhere in the world. Objective is to drive global adoption of the EPCglobal Network.
Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)
The GTIN is a unique identification number for a trade item. This uniqueness is achieved by a number of different numbering structures. GTIN is used frequently in retail and supply chain.
Shrinkage
Any loss of product that occurs in retail or supply chain. This includes but is not limited to theft, miscounting, etc.