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78 Cards in this Set

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study of rocks and minerals as well as the origin, history, and structure of the earth
geology
study of weather, climate, and phenomena in the atmosphere
meteorology
four main elements of andesitic rocks
magnesium
iron
silicon
oxygen
two main elements that granitic rocks consist of
silicon
oxygen
two main elements that basaltic rocks consist of
magnesium
iron
general category for igneous rocks that form on the earth's surface
extrusive
general category for igneous rocks that form beneath the earth's surface
intrusive
texture for igneous rock that has interlocking mineral crystals that are visible with the unaided
coarse grained
texture for igneous rocks that has few or no interlocking mineral crystals
glassy
three main groups that sedimentary rocks can be classified into
chemical
detrital
organic
texture for igneous rock that has large interlocking mineral crystals over a background of very small crystals
porphyritic
detrital/ clastic sedimentary rock consists of rounded pebbles that have been naturally glued together
conglomerate
detirtal/ clastic sedimentary rock consists of pieces of gravel that have been naturally glued together
breccia
mass of intrusive rock that can create landforms
pluton
category of metamorphic rock that has parallel layers or bands
foliated
category of metamorphic rock that does not have parallel layers or bands
nonfoliated
texture for igneous rocks that have very small interlocking mineral crystals, which cannot be seen with the unaided eye
fine grained
idea or concept that there are different rock layers
stratigraphy
sediments form sedimentary rocks by forming horizontal layers or bands
principle of horizontality
idea that younger rock layers are on or near the surface and older rock layers are further down toward the bottom
superposition
discovered by James Hutton but published by Sir Charles Lyell. Hutton said that geological processes that are occuring now, occured in the past, and will occur in the future. The present is the key to the past.
uniformitarianism
has to do with compaction and cementation
lithification
which two types of sedimentary rock can limestone be?
chemical
organic
coal-mineral or organic sedimentary rock?
organic sedimentary rock
floral
plant remains
faunal
animal remains
year USS Alligator sunk
1883
specific type of coarse grained igneous rock
granite
science that studies rocks, minerals, volcanoes, earthquakes, and the structure and origin of the earth
geology
science that studies the oceans
oceanography
science that studies the stars, planets, galaxies, and other bodies found in the universe
astronomy
science that studies the weather and phenomena in the atmosphere
meteorology
experiment that is run under ideal or constant conditions
controlled experiment
name for the condition that is being tested in an experiment
variable
experiment that only tests one variable at a time
fair test
how far does light travel in one year?
9.6 trillion km
steps of scientific method
1. purpose
2. research
3. hypothesis
4. experiment
5. analysis
6. re-experiment
7. conclusion
8. error analysis
five characteristics a mineral must possess
inorganic
naturally occuring
crystalline structure
solid
definite chemical composition
two most abundant elements in the silicates mineral group
oxygen
silicon
who invented the hardness scale for identifying minerals?
Friedrich Mohs
six major crystal shapes
cubic
tetragonal
hexagonal
monoclinic
triclinic
orthohombic
neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons
molecule
if magma cools slowly then how will the minerals cool?
the crystals would be large
subatomic particles that make up the nucleus of an atom
protons
neutrons
number of how many different types of minerals there are
4,000
technical name for fool's gold
pyrite
considered to be the seventh major crystal system
trigonal
element that makes up diamonds
carbon
mineral or rock from which metals and nonmetals can be removed in usable amounts
ore
this subatomic particle is negatively charged and found in rings or energy levels around the nucleus of an element______
electrons
one of two types of minerals that titanium can be extracted from
rutile
2 or more elements chemically combined
compound
a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler forms
element
2 or more elements physically combined
mixture
the building block of all matter
atom
a neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons
molecule
anything that takes up space and has mass
matter
list the 8 methods of identifying a mineral
1. color
2. hardness
3. streak
4. crystalline structure
5. specific gravity
6. cleavage/ fracture
7. luster
8. special properties
a factor that always equals one and is used in dimensional analysis
conversion factor
the act of changing a unit into a different unit
dimensional analysis
how much space an object takes up
volume
spectrums of invisible light
x-rays
UV rays
radio
infrared
suffix -nomy means
systemized knowledge
suffix -logy means
science of
type of weight (think NASA)
Newtons
type of mass
Gram
type of length
Meter
type of volume
cm3 or Liters
type of temperature
Celcius
Reflecting telescopes use ____ to collect and focus light
mirrors
You would use ____ to measure the distsance of objects outside our solar system
light years
Refracting telescopes use ____ to collect and focus light
lenses
Invisible and visible light both make up the ______ spectrum
electromagnetic
system of measurement used by scientists
metric system
Mass is the amount of _____ in an object
matter
billionth of a meter
micrometer
millionth of a meter
nanometer
ten-billionth of a meter
angstrom