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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cellular layer of the peritoneum
Mesothelium
The embryonic origin of mesothelium
mesoderm
The right crus of the diaphragm reaches vertebra, while the left reaches the level of vertebra
LIII, LII
A diverticulum from the foregut into the ventral mesentry gives rise to
1- Liver.
2- Gall bladder.
3- The ventral part of the pancreas.
The round ligament of uterus is a derivative of
gubernaculum
The transpyloric plane transects the body through
lower aspect of vertebra LI
Which costal cartilages is the transpyloric plane related to
the 9th costal cartilages
Relation of the transpyloric plane to the pancreas
it crosses the body of the pancres
Relation of the transpyloric plane to the hila
it crosses through the superior part of the hilum of the right kidney and the inferior part of the hilum of the left kidney
Location of the inferior vena cava and the aorta in regard to the vertebral column
The inferior vena cava is on the right, while the abdominal aorta lies on the left of the vertebral column
The inferior vena cava penetrates the central tendon of the diaphragm at the level of
TVIII
The left renal vein drains
1- The left kidney.
2- The left suprarenal gland.
3- The left gonad.
Sites of portocaval anastomoses
1- the inferior part of the esophagus.
2- the inferior part of the rectum.
3- Small veins accompanying the ligamentum teres(degenerate umbilical cord).
4- Bare area of the liver.
5- The retroperitoneal parts of the small and large intestine.
6- The posterior part of the pancreas.
Caput medusae is
a case which happens in the cases of hepatic hypertension, it is the direct result of the enlargement of the para-umbilical systemic veins
Sympathetic innervation of the abdominal viscera originates from vertebral levels
T5 -> L2
Parasympathetic innervation of the abdominal viscera
Vagus nerve[X] and S2 -> S4
Another name for the superficial fatty layer of the superficial fascia
Camper's Fascia
Another name for the deep membranous layer of the superficial facia
Scarpa's Fascia
Continuation of Camper's fascia and Scarpa's fascia into the scrotum
The dartos muscle
Scarpa's fascia fuses with ... in the thigh
the fascia lata
The name for Scarpa's fascia in the perineal area
superficial perineal fascia -> Colle's fascia
Origin of the external oblique muscle
1- Lower 8 ribs.
Insertion of the external oblique
1- Lateral lip of the iliac crest.
2- Linea alba.
Innervation of the external oblique
Anterior rami of lower 6 thoracic spinal nerves (T7 - T12)
Function of the external oblique.
1- Increases intra-abdominal pressure.
2- Flexion of the trunk.
3- Each muscle contracts turning anterior part of the abdomen to the other side.
Origin of the internal oblique
1- Thoracolumbar fascia.
2- iliac crest between tr. and ext. oblq.
3- Lateral two thirds of the inguinal ligament.
Insertion of the internal oblique
1- Inferior border of lower 3-4 ribs.
2- Linea alba.
3- Pubic crest and pectineal line.
Innervation of the internal oblique
Anterior rami of lower six thoracic spinal nerves and LI
Function of the internal oblique
1- Compresses abdominal contents.
2- Both muscles flex the trunk.
3- Each muscle contraction turns the anterior part of the abdomen to the same side.
Origin of the transversus abdominis.
1- Thoracolumbar fascia.
2- medial lip of iliac crest.
3- lateral one third of the inguinal ligament.
4- lower six costal cartilages.
Insertion of the transversus abdominis
1- Linea alba.
2- pubic crest.
3- pectineal line.
Innervation of the transversus abdominis
T7 -> T12 + L1
Function of the transversus abdominis
1- compressese abdominal contents.
Origin of the rectus abdominis
1- Symphysis pubis.
2- Pubic tubercle.
3- Pubic crest.
Insertion of the rectus abdominis
1- Costal cartilages of ribs V -> VII
2- Xiphoid process.
Innervation of the rectus abdominis
Anterior rami of the lower seven thoracic spinal nerves.
Function of the rectus abdominis.
1- Compresses abdominal contents.
2- Flexes the vertebral column.
3- Tenses the abdominal wall(protection).
Origin of the pyramidalis
1- Front of pubis.
2- Pubic symphysis.
Insertion of the pyramidalis
Linea alba
Innervation of the pyramidalis
Anterior ramus of TXII
Function of the pyramidalis
Tenses the linea alba
The part of the rectus abdominis at which it is in direct contact with the transversalis fascia
The lower one quarter of it.
Structure marks the transition Rectus Sheath -> Transversalis Fascia on the Rectus Abdominis
The Arcuate line
The length of the inguinal canal is
4 cm
A nerve which passes only through the superficial inguinal ring
The ilio-inguinal nerve(a branch of LI, lumbar plexus)
The deep inguinal ring is immediately lateral to
the inferior epigastric vessels
The cremasteric fascia is contributed by
The internal oblq.
The structure in the spermatic cord include:
1- The vas deferens.
2- Artery to the vas deferens.
3- Testicular artery.
4- The pampiniform plexus of veins.
5- The cremasteric vessels.
6- Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve(innervation of the cremasteric muscle.)
7- Sympathetic and visceral afferent fibers.
8- Lymphatics.
9- Remnants of the processus vaginalis.
What are the three facial covering of the spermatic cord?
1- Internal spermatic fascia.(fascia transversalis)
2- Cremasteric fascia(internal oblq.)
3- External spermatic fascia(external oblq.)
Why can the indirect inguinal hernia be considered congenital in origin?
Because it occurs when some part ot all of the embryonic processus vaginalis remains patent.
Hesselbalch's triangle is bounded by
1- Laterally: inferior epigastric vessels.
2- Medially: rectus abdominis.
3- Inferiorly: Inguinal ligament.
What are the structures surrounding the epiploic foramen?
Superiorly: The caudate lobe of the liver
Inferiorly: The first part of the duodenum.
Anteriorly: The free margin of the lesser omentum.
Posteriorly: The inferior vena cava.
The anterior and posterior vagal trunks enter the abdomen through
The esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm
Most duodenal ulcers occur in
the area of duodenal cap
The descending part of the duodenum extends from
The neck of the gall bladder to the lower border of LIII
The transverse part of the duodenum is crossed anteriorly by
The superior mesentric artery and vein
The opening of the ileum into the cecum is guarded by
the flaps of the iliocecal fold
what's the name of the mesentry suspending the rectum?
None, the rectum is a retroperitoneal structure
The structures related to the visceral surface of the liver include:
1- The stomach.
2- The gallbladder.
3- The right kidney.
4- The superior part of the duodenum.
5- The lesser omentum.
6- The right colic flexure.
7- The right transverse colon.
8- The right suprarenal gland.
The boundaries of the bare area are:
1- Anteriorly: The anterior coronary ligament.
2- Posteriorly: The posterior coronary ligament.
3- Laterally: The triangular ligaments.
Another name for the hepatopancreatic ampulla
Ampulla of vater
Another name for the sphincter of the ampulla of Vater
The sphincter of Oddi
The gastrosplenic ligament contains:
The short gastric and gastro-omental vessels
The splenorenal ligament contans the
Splenic vessels
What are the branches of the celiac trunk?
1- Left gastric.
2- Splenic.
3- Common hepatic.
The left gastric artery supplies
The esophagus through esophageal branches.
The lesser curvature of the stomach.
What are the arteries that the left gastric artery anastomoses with?
1- Right gastric artery at the lesser curvature of the stomach.
2- The esophageal branches anastomose with the esophageal branches from the thoracic aorta.
What is the smallest branch of the celiac trunk?
the left gastric artery
What is the largest branch of the celiac trunk?
the splenic artery
An artery traveling in the splenorenal ligament
the splenic artery
An artery supplying the neck, body, and tail of the pancreas
The splenic artery
The splenic artery supplies:
1- The spleen.
2- The neck, body, and tail of the pancreas.
3- The fundus of the stomach through the short gastric branches.
What are the arteries traveling in the gastrosplenic ligament:
The short gastric branches of the splenic artery.
The left gastro-omental artery is a brach of
The splenich artery which, in turn, is a branch of the celiac trunk
The left gstro-omental artery supplies, and anastomoses with
It supplies the greater curvature of the stomach and anastomoses with the right gastro-omental artery.
an artery which has a tortuous course along the superior border of the pancreas
The splenic artery.
The two terminal branches of the common hepatic artey are
1- the hepatic artery proper.
2- the gastroduodenal artery.
a structure running to the left of the bile duct in the free margin of the lesser omentum
The hepatic artery proper which is a branch of the common hepatic artery <- celiac trunk
the cystic artery of the gall bladder is a brach of
Right hepatic artery <- the hepatic artery proper <- the common hepatic artery <- celiac trunk
The branches of the gastroduodenal artery are
1- The supraduodenal artery.
2- The two terminal branches: The right gastro-omental and the superior pancreatico duodenal.
The arterial supply of the pancreas is:
1- The head: Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery <- gastroduodenal artery <- common hepatic artery <- celiac trunk.
2- The neck body and tail: branches from the splenic artery <- celiac trunk.
The arterial supply of the stomach is:
1- The fundus: short gastric arteries <- splenic artery.
2- The lesser curvature: left gastric artery <- celiac trunk -><- right gastric artery.
3- The greater curvature: left gastro-omental artery <- splenic artery <- celiac trunk -><- the right gastro-omental artery <- gastroduodenal artery <- common hepatic artery <- celiac trunk.
The right gastric artery is a branch of
hepatic artery proper or the left hepatic artery
The blood supply of the gallbladder is:
The cystic artery <- right hepatic artery
The blood supply of the pylorus
the right gastric artery
The superior mesentric artery is crossed anteriorly by
1- The splenic vein.
2- The neck of the pancreas.
Structures which are posteriorly related to the superior mesentric artey
1- The left renal vein.
2- The uncinate process.
3- The inferior part of the duodenum.
Branches of the superior mesentric artery on the left
1- Jejunal arteries.
2- Ileal arteries.
Branches on the right side of the superior mesentric artery
1- Middle colic.
2- Right colic.
3- Ileocolic.
4- The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.