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30 Cards in this Set

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Describe the concept of human nature in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). What are its key features?
Humanity is the pinnacle of creation

Human beings have the breath of God blown into their nostrils

Humans given titles are creator (be fruitful and multiply) and sovereign (have dominion)
think of theology class for this answer.
Should the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden be taken literally? Why or why not? What is the meaning of this story?
The story of Adam and Eve should not be taken literally. This story is used to show how sin was brought to the world.
think of theology class
Describe the view of humankind in the New Testament in the New Testament. What are the central features?
same as Hebrew Bible
The only thing that is different is that now humans are out God's grace (alienated from God) and they are seeking salvation. Human virtues are faith, love, and hope. and humans are beings that need love, trust and emotional fulfillment to flourish
same as hebrew bible but think of christ incident from theology
How would you compare and contrast the view of human nature in the Old and New Testaments?
In the Old Testament, humans are given free will, made in the image of God, and given dominion over the land, sea, and air and all the animals in them. but humans gained knowledge and sinned

In the New Testament, humans have the same abiities as they did in the Old Testament with the difference being in sin. Humans are born in sin and in need of salvation
human nature is the same
but we start out in sin in the new bible instead of starting it
Discuss the negative and positive versions of the Golden Rule. What are the implications of the difference for the moral life?
The negative version "eye for an eye" says that what you do will be done unto you. It does not mention that anyone will be rewarded from spreading peace. it just says what will happen if you do wrong. The positive one, Jesus' version, simply says treat people as you would have them treat you
one says not to take negative action
the other actually asks for people to do kind acts to others
Read over the Sermon of the Mount. How should we interpret Jesus' teachings? Should we love our enemies, turn the other cheek when struck by an assailant, and give our clothes away to those who request them?
The interpretation is supposed to be taken figuratively. The law, as is, is for perfect beings. And, nobody is perfect so there is no way for someone to uphold this law. The meaning of this law is to serve as something for the people to try and attain.
the only perfect person was Jesus
The Bible seems to place faith over reason (see 1 Cor. 1). Explore the implications of this doctrine.
The wisdom of the wise was destroyed by God. And it is impossible to understand God through wisdom when he opens himself to those who have faith. Faith is considered a foolish thing by the wise; but, in the eyes of the Lord, faith is stronger than wisdom because faith is connected with something greater than humans while wisdom is created by humans.
reason and faith in response to God
Who were the Sophists, and what was their view of human nature?
Sophists were teachers of litigation. They taught people how to win cases in court. And, people would pay for their knowledge.
Sophists considered everything in human nature to be relative to the person. One person will perceive green differently than another person will. So, what someone perceives is relative to that person. And, the same goes for one's sense of justice and right.
i like ass and titties.
he likes titties
What does Protagoras mean by "Man is the measure of all things"? Analyze this statement. Does it mean that human beings have no essential nature?
Everything is relative to the person that perceives it. If the person didn't perceive it, that person cannot measure it. There is no essential nature to human beings because they are shaped by their experiences. And, since everyone experiences and responds to things differently, there is no essential nature in human beings.
Man is the measure of all things:
Both of the things that they are
And of the things that are not,
Man is the measure that they are not
What was Socrates' view of human nature?
Human nature can be judged by morality. If one lives a moral life then they can find happiness. And morality can be found through reasoning. If you know it is bad, then don't do it. If you know it is good, then do it
if you know it. then do it/ dont do it
Do you agree with Socrates on the invincibility of goodness, that no one can harm a good person?
I agree with the invincibility of goodness. It is possible to physically harm a good man. But, i think Socrates was thinking about the human conscience. If someone knows they do wrong, then they will not be at peace because their soul is stained with the weight of their wrongdoing. So, in the end, you have hurt yourself. And, the good man you hurt is still good.
think about this
Explain Plato's theory of the Forms and its implications for his theory of human nature.
Instead of trying to decide why something is a certain way, we can agree it is because it is. Something gets larger because of its largeness. something gets smaller because of its smallness. Something is beautiful because it is beautiful.
In regards to human nature, what makes an act good is that it is good.
It is beautiful because it is.
Explain Plato's idea of innate ideas.
The soul has lived before the present life and learned the lesson already. But, one has to awaken the knowledge held by the soul. And, that is done by being questioned and taught be a suitable guide, teacher, who can bring out the best in us and make us recall that knowledge we gained in a previous lifetime
unlock the knowledge within
What is the puzzle about learning that Meno describes? Why does it seem impossible to learn anything? What is Socrates' response to the puzzle? How do we learn, and why is learning possible?
It seems impossible to learn something because if you find the answer, how do you know if the answer you've found is right if you do not know what the right answer is?
Socrates makes Meno's slave double the size of the square, when he had no knowledge of how to double the size. But, after a while, the slave figured out the correct answer. Socrates then states that the knowledge is already in our soul; we just have to remind ourselves of the knowledge by way of a teacher or guide to provoke the thought.
the process of unlocking knowledge
What is Plato's theory of justice? How does it relate to human nature and political organization?
Justice is the essence to be self-controlled, courageous, and rational beings. The essence of human nature is the essence of justice. So, it is human nature to be just.
balance in the soul
Evaluate Plato's theory of human nature.
Human nature is based on the essence of justice. Justice is in human nature. And, when people are doing unjust acts, they are going against their normal nature.
When Socrates says that the Good is really good for you and that only ignorant people would do evil because it harms them, is he implicitly appealing to a religious view of the world?
No, Socrates is not appealing to a religious view of the world. He is using reasoning to state that if people cannot figure out what is good for others will be good for them, then they will ignorantly try and harm others not knowing they are harming themselves.
If you know it's bad then stop. But, what if you don't know its bad?
Examine the Allegory of the Cave and draw out its lessons.
As people, we start out with limited knowledge. And, we like to think that our limited knowledge is all we need to know to survive in the world. But, through continued teaching, we gain more knowledge and our understanding of the world around us increases. We are then able to see the world in a new light and come to the realization that there is more to learn. And, once we attain knowledge, it is our job to teach others the way to gain knowledge.
What is metaphysics?
The study of whatever lies beyond the natural world
Meta means beyond
physics means nature
What is epistomology?
The study of knowledge
The Greek prefix means "episteme" means "scientific knowledge"
"logy" "means study"
What is ethics?
The philosophical study of morality, including questions of right and wrong, good and evil, justice and injustice, fairness and unfairness, etc.
Ethics has cast its net into medicine, business, environmental issues, sports, and more.
What is aesthetics?
The branch of philosophy that raises questions about the nature of beauty and related cocepts like the sublime, the tragic the ugly, the humorous, the drab, the pretty, and so on
The word "aesthetics" derives form the Greek word "aisthetikos", which means one who is perceptive of things through sensations, feelings, intuitions.
Aisthesis means primary, rudimentary sensation.
What is logic?
The study of the rules of exact reasoning, of the forms of sound or valid thought patterns. Logic separates arguments into inductive and deductive catagories.
Philosophical Arguments
1. Are the premises or supporting statements true
2. does the conclusion "follow" logically from the premises?
Only an argument that passes both of these tests can be described as sound
Describing a "sound" argument
What are applied ethics?
Ethics applied with the meaning to increase understanding of moral justice in the world
Applied ethics has been broadened to include metaethics and normative ethics
What do objectivists believe in?
1. Values exist in the external world independently of and external to our own comprehension of them
2. The values can be found and known
3. They must be used as principles for human judgements and conduct
Values are the same throughout all societies
What do relativists believe in?
values are conditioned by peculiarities of the society in which they arise. So, values are not universally accepted at all times in all places
Values are different from society to society, at times ever person to person
Egoism vs Altruism
Egoists claim that people are motivated by selfishness
Altruists claim that people are motivated by benevolence.
Attempts to decide if people are motivated by selfishness or benevolence
Emotion vs Reason
Do we make moral judgements based on reason or emotion
Male vs. Female
1. Traditional morality is male centered
2. There is a unique perspective of the world which can be shaped into a value theory