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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When does the LH surge occur?
36 hrs before ovulation
segments of fallopian tube
infundibulum: distal, wide, fimbriae
ampulla: MC site of fertilization
isthmus: narrow, closest to uterus)
Oocytes are arrested at what stage of division until fertilization?
Prophase of meiosis I
Catabolites of catecholamines seen increased in a pheochromocytoma
vanillylmandelic acid
If you shine light in an eye with a retinal detachment, what pupillary response do you expect to see?
Dilation of both pupils.
Seen with retinal detachment and optic neuritis: conditions where not enough light is entering the eye.
This is called the Gunn sign or Marcus- Gunn phenom.
The pupil dilates to let more light in
Most common form of CAH?
The MC form variant of this?
the LC variant?
21-hydroxylase deficiency
simple virilizing
virilization and salt-wasting
What is the pathogenesis of the symptoms of 21-hydroxylase deficiency?
CAH-> low cortisol-> hypoglycemia
enzyme deficiency-> low aldosterone-> saltwasting & hyperkalemia
low cortisol-> loss of feedback-> high ACTH-> adrenal hyperplasia and high adrenal androgens: dehydroepiandrosterone & androstenedione-> virilization of external genitalia
high ACTH-> high 17-OH progesterone (precursor to 21- hydroxylase)
What is the function of 5-alpha reductase?
What is seen in 5- alpha reductase deficiency?
converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone
Normal internal reproductive tracts, but external genitalia will be feminized; due to lack of enzyme in the external genitalia and prostate
Another form of CAH featuring salt retenation and virilization of females
11- beta- hydroxylase deficiency
salt retention d/t excessive secretion of the weak mineralocorticoid, deoxycorticosterone, by the inner zones of the adrenal cortex
Low cortisol- loss of negative feedback- high ACTH
high androgens-> virilization
Another form of CAH featuring salt wastin and feminization of males
17- alpha hydroxylase deficiency
high ACTH-> excessive secretion of the weak mineralocorticoids, deoxycorticosterone & corticosterone
sex steroid prodxn is diminished due to lack of 17-alpha-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone-> female fetuses will develop normally, but males with have reproductive tracts and genitalia feminized
Gastic inhibitory peptide (GIP)
a) actions at physiologic doses?
b) actions at pharmacologic doses?
a) stimulates pancreatic insulin secretion
b) inhibits gastric acid secretion and gastric motility
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)
relaxes intestinal smooth muscle
stimulates pancreatic secretion of HCO3- and inhibits gastric H+ secretion
Secretin is secreted in response to?
h+ and aacs in duodenum
duodenal ph < 4.5
CCK is secreted in response to?
aacs and FFAs in the duodenum
When are inhibin levels increased in the menstrual cycle?
Increased in the middle of the luteal phase, falling just before menstruation
Also increase in women carrying Down syndrome babies
Inhibin released by?
acts on?
Granulosa cells of ovary or sertoli cells in testes
Inhibit prodxn of FSH
Also control gametogenesis and embryonic and fetal devpt
Lipoprotein lipase located on?
Endothelial cells of tissues that need TG, such as cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and lactating breast.
Action of lipoprotein lipase
hydrolyzes TG in the chylomicron core to FFAs that are more easily absorbable-> shrinking of chylomicrons
Chylomicrons are made by? How?
Made by enterocytes (intestinal epi cells)
Packaged in sER
Using gut lumen mixed micelles (TGs)