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75 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics: neither gram (-) or (+), waxy cell envelope that prevents gram stain and slows tx, rod shaped and gram (+)-like
Bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Diagnosis: Mantoux or tine test, sputum, X-ray
S/S: fever, night sweats, coughing, and wasting
TX: triple ABT for 6 mos to 2 yrs; Isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, and streptomycin commonly used ABT.
-requires 6 wks to cx
-generation time: 12 hrs
-cause of 25% of adult deaths in the 18th and 19th century
-2 billion people (1/3 of world population) infected as of 2001
TB
Tubercular antigens
purified protein derivative (PPD)
hard foci in the lung tissue that wall off TB bacteria; visible on X-ray
tubercles
TB organisms resistant to ABT; along with AIDs has resulted in increase of TB cases in US since 1985; often fatal, even with ABT.
multiply resistant TB (MRTB)
Characteristics: gram (+), club-shaped bacillus, Chinese character appearance
Bacteria: Corynebacterium diphtheria (diptherotixin)
S/S: affects heart and nervous system, psuedomembrane formation on pharynx that should not be removed as pt could bleed to death
-highly effective vaccine available
diptheria
Characteristics: gram (-), coccobacillus
Bacteria: Bordetella pertussis
S/S: paroxysmal sound generated when coughing stops, subconjunctival hemorrhaging can occur
-primarily affects young children
death rate: historically 50%, today 0.5%
-increased risk d/t scare over rare fatal anaphylactic reaction from previous vaccine
Pertussis aka whooping cough
Characteristics: Gram (+), spehres (cocci) in chains (strepto)
Common infection sites: throat, oral cavity, vagina, and intestines
-does not secrete catalase which differentiates them from S. aureus
Streptococcal diseases
Layer in streptococci cell envelope to which humans produce nonprotective Abs that are useful for diagnostics
C carbohydrate
Two methods of grouping streptococcal diseases
1. by the C carbohydrates (class A, class B, etc)
2. hemolytic reaction of bacteria on blood agar
Classification of streptococci that produce a completely clear zone of hemolysis in blood agar
B-hemolytic
Incomplete hemolysis or a breakdown of globin to a greenish product
a-hemolysis
Classification of streptococci that produce a-hemolysis on blood agar
a-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae
aka viridans streptococci
Classification of streptococci that produce no hymolysis on blood agar
y-hemolysis
Characteristics: B-hemolytic, group A strep (C-carb type), pyogenic, cloaking devices
Bacteria: streptococcus pyogenes
Bacteria also cause: impetigo, nectrotizing faciitis, and scarlet fever
TX: amoxicillin
-no resistant mutations so ABT is highly effective
-ABT compliance is vital d/t life threatening sequelae
Acute pharyngitis
Two cloaking devices of Strep. pyogenes
1. hyaluronic acid capsule is identical to polysaccharide found in human connective tissue so it is considered self by immune system
2. S. aureus Ab coating
The five layers of the Strep. pyogenes envelope
1. cytoplasmic membrane
2. cell wall (peptidoglycan)
3. C carbohydrate
4. M protein (attachment factor + antiphagocytic)
5. capsule of hyaluronic acid
Streptococcal hemolytic exotoxins
streptolysins
Two streptolysins produced by Strep. pyogenes that damage cell membranes, including those of the heart and WBCs.
SLO
SLS
Name the two hypersensitivity reactions aka post-streptococcal states (sequelae) that result from the damage the disease does to the immune system
1. Rheumatic fever (heart valve and joint damage)
2. Formation of immune complexes that lead to kidney damage
Characteristics: B-hemolytic, Group B strep
Bacteria: Strep agalactiae
-normal flora to vaginal tract but can cause serious disease in newborns resulting in 40% of cases of newborn septicemia and can cause serious meningitis
TX: Strep B positive expectant moms tx c ABT for a few weeks before birth
Group B strep
Characteristics: a-hemolytic, optochin resistant, not typable by C carb
-Normal flora in mouths/resp tract
-affects people with heart damage (such as that can occur p strep A) and can lead to sub-acute endocarditis
-Dentist must take excellent hx and provide ABT as needed
Viridans Strep
Literally a condition of the lungs; can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi and physical particulates
Pneumonia
Characteristics: a-hemolytic, optochin sensitive, can't type C-carb
Diagnosis: gram (+) cocci in sputum, X-ray
S/S: pus-like exudate and fluid accumulation in lungs, rusty sputum.
Bacteria also causes: subacute endocarditis, otitis media and meningitis
-Causes 50% of bacterial PNX; 90 strains
-30-70% of people are carriers
Streptococcus pneumoniae
aka pneumococcus
formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae
An Ab test based on anticapsular Abs that distinguishes the capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Quellung Test
A vaccine that contains 23 of the most common polysaccharide types of Streptococcus pneumoniae; requires boosters q five years
pneumovax
Characteristics: gram neg, no peptidoglycan layer
Bacteria: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (no cell wall, sterol in membranes)
Diagnosis: cold agglutinis
-common in college/military environments
Walking pneumonia
antibodies that Mycoplasma induces in pts; cause agglutination RBCs when stored in cold temps
cold agglutinins
Characteristics: gram neg, bacilli c many vacuoles, fastidious
Bacteria: Legionella pneumophila
S/S: headache, fever, shaking chills initially, coughing, SOB
-Found in most water sources, transmitted aerosol only
-adept at proliferation inside macrophages, resistant to chlorine, and can ingest amoeba
Legionnaires' Disease
aka legionellosis
Characteristics: gram neg, no cell wall, obligate intracellular pathogens
Bacteria: Chlamydia
Diagnosis:seriological test for Ab in pt serum, DNA hybridization test
-Causes 15% of bacterial PNX
-strong correlation c heart attack and stroke
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Disease that leads to serious brain damage and death, particularly in children; stiff neck associated with fever and vomiting are hallmark s/s; caused by number of orgs spread via resp routes
Meningitis
Characteristics: gram neg, pleomoprhic rods, fastidious
-most common cause of meningitis
-90% fatal untreated with 1/3 treated cases having permanent brain damage
Hemophilus influenzae
A t-cell independent capsular polysaccharide vaccine used to treat H. influenzae
Hib
A new T cell-dependent H. influenzae vaccine in which he capsular material ha been conjugated to the diphtherotoxoid protein; induces memory response
Hib conjugate
Characteristics: gram neg diplococci; fastidious
-Infection is medical emergency and IV ABT must be initiated immediately
Diagnosis: spinal tap
TX; aggressive PCN therapy
Neisseria meningitidis
aka meningococcus
Vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis available for four types of the polysaccharide capsule; no effect on Type b, the most common type
menomune
What is unusual about the morphology of Bordetealla pertussis?
It is a coccobacillus
What color will viridans strep produce on blood agar?
greenish tinge
How do contacts of meningitis pts protect themselves
prophylactic tx with rifampin
How are C. pneumoniae cultured
Must be cultured inside human cells, can't be grown on bacterial media
Virulence activity associated with C carb layer of Strep pyogenes
prevents lysosomes from lysing the cell
Characteristics: naked, icosahedral virion, RNA
S/S: runny nose, headace, sore throat, no fever
-113 serotypes that cause 50% common cold cases
3-5 infection/year is average
Rhinoviruses
Characteristics: naked, icosahedral virions, DNA
Virus also causes: pharyngo-conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis
-at least 50 serotypes
-isolated from adenoids where they remain latent for life
-cause 10-15% of all URIs
Adenoviruses
Characteristics: Enveloped virion, RNA
S/S: fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, cough
TX: amantadin, ribavirin, zanamivir
-spread person to person in two to three days
-virus changes genetically from year to year
Influenza
The two important surface viral proteins contained in the infulenza virus that predispose pts to bacterial infection, especially pnx
neuraminidase
hemagglutnin
Surface viral protein of influenza that breaks down the protective mucous layer that lines the throat.
neuraminidase
Surface viral protein of influenza that attaches the virus to the cilliated epithelial cells in the throat so that the virus an enter and kill the the cells
hemagglutinin
Term for complete hemagglutinin gene change
antigenic shift
Term for mutational change
antigenic drift
What is the protection rate of the flu vaccine?
70-80%
Disease causing neural damage, paralysis and coma that rarely occurs in flu vaccination (1 in 1million)
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Characteristics: enveloped virion, RNA
S/S: seven day rash that starts as red spots on head or trunk and spread toward extremities, Koplik's spots
Complications: pnx in 5 %, encephalitis in 0.1%
measels virus
rubeola
reddish patches with white, salt crystal like centers; distinctive diagnostic sign in rubeola
Koplik' spots
Rare but fatal neurological disease that may occur years after measles infection
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Characteristics: enveloped virion, RNA
S/S: parotitis; orchitis and sterility can occur in post adolescent males
-Dramatic decrease d/t excellent vaccination
Mumps
Characteristics: enveloped virion, DNA
S/S: rash lasting 2-3 wks with intense itching; mild in children, not in adults; recurrent diseases is shingles
-vaccine available
Chicken pox (varicella virus)
shingles (zoster virus)
A painful neuralgia that lasts from 3-5 weeks; occurs in adults over 40 who've had chicken pox; facial paralysis may result
shingles
Characteristics: Enveloped virions, RNA
S/S: mild; slightly red rash that lasts about 3 days
-Excellent vaccine available (MMR)
Rubella
aka three day measles
aka German measles
Disease in which mother passes Rubella virus transplacentally with devastating results
congenital rubella syndrome
Characteristics: enveloped virion, RNA
-Causes serious infection of lower resp tract in children
-Highly contagious
-treated with ribavarin
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Characteristics: naked, icosahedral virion, RNA
-infects alimentary canal, invades neurons in spinal canal
-Transmitted in H2O or food
Poliovirus
Killed vaccine for Polio
Salk
live attenuated vaccine for Polio
Sabin
How do amantadine, ribavirin and zanamivir function?
amantadine: inhibit uncoating
ribavirin: inhibit viral RNA replication
zanamivir: inhibit neuraminidase
Characteristics: encapsulated yeast, produces urease; found in pigeon droppings
Fungus: Filobasidiella neoformans
-Causes pnx and menegitis
-Most virulent fungus causing 25% of fungal deaths; common in AIDs pts
Cryptococcosis
fungi that are yeast in the tissue at 37 degrees C and mold in the environment at cooler temps
thermal dimorphs
Characteristics: yeast at body temp, mold in environment, no capsule
Fungus: Histoplsma capsulatum
Diagnosis: yeast in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages; Ags detection in blood specimen
-infection of lungs that can spread to other organs
-common in bird droppings and bat guano
-most common in OH/MS river valley
Histoplasmosis
Characteristics: yeast at body temp, mold in environment
Fungus: Blastomyces dermatitidis
S/S: inhalation-cough and chest pain; cuts-raised wart like lesions
-Found in rotting wood
-Causes pulmonary infection, can spread to other tissues
Blastomycosis
Characteristics: yeast at body temp, mold in environment
Fungus: Coccidioides immitis
S/S: chest pains, dry hacky cough, high fever (pulmonary and meningeal
Diagnosis: spherule in sputum or tissue biopsy
-prevalent in SW US
Coccidoidomycosis
Characteristics: fuzzy mold, septate hyphae
Fungus: Aspergillus fumigatus
-Causes PNX and otyomycosis
Diagnosis: fungi in sputum
Aspergillosis
Fungal balls associated with aspergillosis
aspergilloma
Fungus that grows on peanuts and most grains and produces aflatoxins which are linked to cancer (especially in the liver)
Aspergillus flavus
Fungus related to Aspergillus that produces mycotoxin called ergot, which causes hallucinations and other brain disturbances
Claviceps purpurea
Phyco: seaweed appearance; mykes: fungus aka zygomeycetes d/t sexual reproduction using zygote; commonly found in soil
Phycomycetes
Two genera of phycomycetes that are associated with pulmonary disease; can grow on blood vessel walls and thrive in diabetic pts
Gnera Mucor and Rhizopus
Characteristics: Mold, biggest cause of death in AIDS pts (50%
Fungus: Pneumocystis carini
S/S: dry cough c s/s of pnx
-fungus appears to have no effect except in immunocompromised pts
-has protozoa like features, classified as protozoa until 1999
Pneumocystosis