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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bronchoscopy
exam of larynx, trachea, & bronchi w/ endoscope
cilia
short hairs that propel mucous & foreign substances away from lung toward larynx
crackles
soft, high-pitched, discontinuous popping sounds during inspiration caused by delayed reopening of airways
diffusion
exchange of gas molecules from areas of higher to lower concentration
dyspnea
labored breathing (SOB)
hemoptysis
expectoration of blood from resp tract
hypoxemia
decreased arterial oxygen tension in blood
hypoxia
decreased oxygen supply in tissues & cells
orthopnea
inability to easily breath unless sitting upright
physiologic dead space
portion of treacheobronchial tree that doesn't participate in gas exchange
pulmonary perfusion
blood flow thru pulmonary vasculature
respiration
gas exchange between astmospheric air & blood; & between blood & body cells
ventilation
movement of air in & out of lungs
wheezes
continuous musical sounds associated w/ airway narrowings or partial obstruction
alaryngeal communication
alternative modes of speaking that don't involve normal larynx; used when larynx is removed
aphonia
impaired ability to use one's voice due to disease or injury to larynx
apnea
cessation of breathing
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
epistaxis
nosebleed
herpes simplex
cold sore
layrngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the larynx
nuchal rigidity
stiffness of neck
pharyngitis
inflammation of the throat
rhinitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose
rhinorrhea
drainage of large amounts of fluid from the nose (runny nose)
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
submucosal resection
surgical correction of nasal obstruction due to deviated septum (septoplasty)
tonsilitis
inflammation of the tonsils
xerostomia
dryness of the mouth
acute lung injury (ALI)
term for hypoxemic, resp failure
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
nonspecific pulmonary response to a variety of pulmonary & nonpulmonary insults to the lung
asbestosis
diffuse lung fibrosis resulting from exposure to asbestos fibers
atelecasis
collapse of alveoli
central cyanosis
bluish discoloration of skin or mucous membranes due to hemoglobin carrying reduced amount of oxygen
consolidation
lung tissue that's more solid in nature due to collapse of alveoli or infectious process (pneumonia)
cor pulmonale
right sided heart failure
empyema
accumulation of fluid in pleural space
fine-needle aspiration
insertion of a needle thru chest wall to obtain cells of a mass or tumor
hemothorax
partial or complete collapse of lung due to blood accumulation in pleural space
induration
abnormally hard lesion or reaction, as in a positive TB skin test
nosocomial
hospital acquired
open lung biopsy
biopsy of lung tissue performed thru a limited thoracotomy incision
pleural effusion
abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural space
pleural friction rub
localized grating or creaking sound caused by inflamed parietal and visceral pleurae rubbing together
pleural space
area between parietal and visceral pleurae
pneumothorax
partial or complete lung collapse due to positive pressure in pleural space
pulmonary edema
increased amount of extravascular fluid in the lung
pulmonary embolism
obstruction of pulmonary vasculature w/ embolus (blood clot, air bubbles, fat droplets)
purulent
consisting of, containing, or discharging pus
restrictive lung disease
disease of lung that causes a decrease in lung volume
tension pneumothorax
pneumothorax characterized by increasing positive pressure in pleural space w/ each breath
thoracentesis
insertion of needle into pleural space to remove fluid
transbronchial
thru the bronchial wall
ventilation-perfusion ratio
ratio between ventilation and perfusion in the lung
air trapping
incomplete emptying of alveoli during expiration
alpha-antitrypsin deficiency
genetic disorder resulting from deficiency of alpha1 antitrypsin
asthma
disease w/ multiple precipitating mechanisms resulting in reversible airflow obstruction
bronchiectesis
chronic dilation of bronchus or bronchi
bronchitis
inflammation of bronchus or bronchi
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
disease state characterized by airflow limitation not full reversible
emphysema
disease of sirways characterized by destruction of the walls of overdistended alveoli
metered-dose inhaler
pt activated medication canister that provides aerosolized medication pt inhales into lungs
polycythemia
increased RBC concentration in blood
spirometry
pulmonary function tests that measure specific lung volumes and rates
airway pressure release ventilation (APRV)
mode of mechanical ventilation that allows unrestricted, spontaneous breaths thru out the ventilatory cycle
assist-control ventilation
mode of mechanical ventilation where pt's breathing pattern may trigger the ventilator to deliver a preset tidal volume
chest drainage system
use of chest tube & closed drainage system to reexpand lung and remove excess fluid, air, or blood
chest percussion
manually cupping over the chest wall to mobilize secretions by mechanically dislodging viscous or adherent secretions in the lungs
chest physiotherapy (CPT)
therapy used to remove bronchial secretions, improve ventilation, & increase efficiency of respiratory muscles
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
positive pressure applied thru out respiratory cycle to a spontaneously breathing pt to promote alveolar & airway stability
controlled ventilation
mode of mechanical ventilation where ventilator completely controls the pt's ventilation according to preset tidal volumes & resp rate
endotracheal intubation
insertion of a breathing tube thru the nose or mouth into the trachea
fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)
concentration of oxygen delivered
incentive spirometry
method of deep breathing that provides visual feedback to help pt inhale deeply & slowly & achieve maximum lung capacity
intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)
mode of mechanical ventilation that provides a combination of mechanically assisted & spontaneous breaths
mechanical ventilator
a positive -or negative- pressure breathing device tht supports ventilation and oxygenation
positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)
positive pressure maintained by ventilator @ the end of exhalation to increase functional residual capacity & open collapsed alveoli
postural drainage
positioning pt to allow drainage from all lobes of lung & airways
pressure support ventilation (PSV)
mode of mechanical ventilation where preset positive pressure is delivered w/ spontaneous breaths to decrease work of breathing
proportional assist ventilation (PAV)
mode of mechanical ventilation that provides partial ventilatory support in proportion to the pt's inspiratory efforts
respiratory weaning
process of gradual, systematic withdrawal and/or removal of ventilator, breathing tube, & oxygen
synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)
mode of mechanical ventilation where the ventilator allows pt to breathe spontaneously while providing a preset # of breaths to ensure adequate ventilation
thoracotomy
surgical opening into the chest cavity
tracheotomy
surgical opening into the trachea
tracheostomy tube
indwelling tube inserted directly into the trachea to assist w/ ventilation
vibration
type of massage adm by quickly tapping the chest w/ fingertips or alternating the fingers in rhythmic manner, or by using a mechanical device to assist in mobilizing lung secretions