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16 Cards in this Set

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alveoli
scattered in walls of respiratory bronchioles
continuous in walls of alveolar ducts which lead to termial alveolar sacs
smallest units in which gas exchange occurs
thin walled spheriodal air filled spaces
type I alveolar epithilial cells
very flattened cells
cover majority of alveolar wall
sit on basement membrane
terminally differentiate ( cannot divide)
allow gas diffusion across cytoplasm
type II alveolar epithilial cells
cuboidal
cytoplasmic granules contain surfactant
divide to replace type I and type II cells
interalveolar septa
seperate alveoli
alveolar pores
allow passage of air between alveoli
blood-air barrier
between the air and the blood plasam, oxygen must diffuse across:
alveolar fluid
alveolar epithlial cell
basement membrane of alveolar epithelium
basement membrane of capilliary endothelium
capiliary endothilial cells
blood-air barrier ___ thick
.2-2 mico meters
once in plasma, oxygen is taken up by
eryhtrocytes then binds to hemaglobin
pulmonary macrophages are present in three location
intravascular- assocaited with endothielium (pigs, ruminants)
interstital
alveolar- function to clear alveolar surface; remove via trachea or via intersitium--> lymphatic system
pulmonary macrophages derived from
heamopoetic stem cells (monocyte-macrophage lineage)
can proliferate localy
also recruited from blood during infection
intralobular septa
collagen and elastic fibers
blood vessels
pleura
squamous/cuboidal epithileium overlying elastic and collagen fibers
partial pressure
the pressure exerted by a given gas in a mix of gases
found by mutiplying by the total pressure
alveolar air
water vapor added to air suring inspiration --- change in partial pressure of gases, although total pressure remains the same
partial pressure of gas in liquids
determined by concentration of gas dissolved in the fluid
oxygen bound to hemaglobin does not contribute to PO2 in blood
CO2 dissolved in blood undergoes following reaction
CO2+H2O <--> H+ + HCO3-
DR = PD X A X DC / T
DR- diffusion rate
PD-partial pressure gradient across tissue barrier
A- surface area available for diffusion
DC- diffusion coefficient
T-thickness of tissue barrier