Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/143

Click to flip

143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
alveolo
alveolus (air sac)
broncho
bronchio
bronchus (airway)
bronchiolo
bronchiole (little airway)
capno
carbo
carbon dioxide
laryngo
larynx
lobo
lobe (a portion)
naso
rhino
nose
oro
mouth
oxo
oxygen
palato
palate
pharyngo
pharynx
phreno
diaphgragm
pleuro
pleura
pneumo
pnenmono
air or lung
pulmono
lung
sinuso
sinus (cavity)
spiro
breathing
thoraco
pectoro
stetho
chest
tonsillo
tonsil
tracheo
trachea (windpipe)
uvulo
uvula
pnea
breathing
nose
structure that warms moistens and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract and that houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
sinuses
air filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate
partition between the oral and nasal cavities divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx
throat, passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis`
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and esophagus
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion also called palatine tonsils
adenoid
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose also called pharyngeal tonsil
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape like shape
larynx
voice box passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea contains vocal cords
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis
lid like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea
windpipe passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into the right and left bonchus
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
right and left bronchus
two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli
thin walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs
two spongy organs located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes
subdivisions of the lung two on the left and three on the right
pleura
membranes enclosing the lung and lining the thoracic cavaity
pleural cavity
potential space between the visceral pluera and lining the thoracic cavaity
diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavaity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membranes
thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete muscus
cilia
hair like processes from the surface of epithelial cells such as those of the bronchi that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthpnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing charracterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level followed by a decrease resulting in apnea
lung sounds
crackles
rales
popping sounds heart on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli - bronchiectasis or atelectasis
wheezes
rhonchi
high pitched musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway asthma emphysema
stridor
a high pitched crowning sound that is a sign of obstructio in the upper airway
caseous necrosis
degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese like appearance (characteristic of tuberculosis
dysphonia
horseness
epistaxis
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from lungs by coughing
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs
hypercapnia
hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia
hypoventilation
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amount of osygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder
condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder
condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the aveoli
pulmonary infiltrate
density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changes
rhinorrhea
thin watery discharge from the nose
asthma
panting, obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane characterized by paroxysmal attacks of wheezing, dyspnea and cough
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
bronchiectasis
abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease charaterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
permanent destructive pulmonary diorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
cystic fibrosis
inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection inflammation and lung tissue
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis
inflammation of the upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct seal bark cough
laryngospasm
spasm of laryngeal muscles causing constriction
nasal polyposis
presence of numberous polyps in the nose
pleural effusion
accumulation of fliud within the pleural cavity
empyerma
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
pleuritis
pleurisy
inflammatin of the pleura
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos or silicone
pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria viruses fungi or parasites or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
pneumocystis pneumonia
peumonia caused by the pneumocystis carinii organism a common opportunistic infection seen in those with positive HIV
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung often caused by hypersenitivity ro chemicalss or dusts
pulmonary embolism
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation most often caused by a blood cot
pulmonary tuberculosis
diease caused by the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by formation of tubercles inflammation and nectrotizing caseous lesions
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea
periods of breahting cessation that occur during sleep often causing snoring
tonsillitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infection
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
endoscopy
examination of a body cavity with a flexible endoscope to examine within for diagnostic or treatment purposes
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope called a bronchoscope to examine the airways
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnomralities such as obstructions growths and cancers
lung biopsy
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination
magnetic resonance image
nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
polysomnography
recording of various aspects of sleep muscle movements repiration for diagnosis of sleep disorders
auscultation
to listen physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
percussion
physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size border or fliud content of a cavity such as the chest
pulmonary function testing
direct and indirect measures of lung volumes and capacities
spirometry
portion of pulmonary function testing that is a direct measurement of lung and volume capacity
tidal volume
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
vital capacity
amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
peak flow
peak expiratory flow rate
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
pulse oximetry
noninvasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterialpulsation commonly the finger used to monitor hypoxemia
adenoidectomy
excision of the adenoids
lobectomy
removal of a lung
nasal polypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
throacoscopy
endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube
thoracotomy
incision into the chest
tonsillectomy
excision of the palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenidectomy
excision of the tonsil and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea most often to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
method of artificial respiration and closed chest massage used to restore breathing and cardiac output after cardiac arrest
continuous positive airway pressure
device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages commonly used duing sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
endotracheal intubation
passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
incentive spirometry
common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
mechanical ventilation
mechanical method performed by a repiratory therapist to provide assisted breathing using a ventilator
antibiotic
drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
anticoagulant
drug that dissolves or prevents the formation of thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
antihistime
drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
histamine
compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions inflammation etc. causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle dilation of blood vessels
bronhodialator
drug that dialates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant
drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing