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83 Cards in this Set

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oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported between the cells of the body and the respiratory system by the?
circulatory system
the smallest branches of the respiratory system tubes terminate in the clusters of microscopic air sacs called?
alveoli
gas exchange takes place between the blood and the atmosphere in structures called?
alveoli
blood enters the lung from the heart through a major artery known as the?
pulmonary artery
the mouth and nasal cavities meet in the region known as the?
pharynx
the nasal cavities open to the external environment at the nostrils, also called the?
external nares
passageways in the nasal cavity are separated from one another by bony extensions of the nasal septum known as the ?
nasal conchae
many bones of the skull contain openings from the nasal cavities referred to as?
sinuses
at the roof of the nasal cavities the sense of smell is associated with an area called the?
olfactory region
three functions of the nose include moistening the air, filtering the air, and ___?
warming the air
allergic reactions occurring within the nasal chambers are given the general name?
allergic rhinitis
another name for the pharynx is the ?
throat
the digestive and respiratory passageways meet one another at the region of the pharynx referred to as the?
oropharynx
the lateral walls of the nasopharynx contain openings of tubes from the middle ear known as?
eustachian tubes
the mass of lymphatic tissue on the medial posterior wall of the nasopharynx is the ?
pharyngeal tonsils
the largest cartilage of the larynx, also known as the Adam's apple, is the?
thyroid cartilage
the cartilage of the larynx that resembles a signet ring and connects the trachea and larynx is the ?
cricoid cartilage
the opening to the larynx is referred to as the?
glottis
vibrations of the vocal chords are due to air exhaled from the ?
lungs
because men have longer vocal chords, their voices have lower?
pitch
the trachea is supported by a series of C-shaped rings of?
cartilage
the two primary tubes that branch from the trachea are the?
bronchi
there is no cartilage in the tubes when the bronchi become?
bronchioles
bronchioles are composed entirely of muscle referred to as?
smooth muscle
the common name for inflammation of the bronchial tree is?
bronchitis
the lungs occupy most of the space of the?
thoracic cavity
the number of alveoli in the average adult numbers approximately?
300 million
the left lung is subdivided into two lobes while the right lung is subdivided into?
three lobes
the two-layer membrane surrounding each lung is the?
pleura
the outer layer of the pleura lining the inner surface of the thoracic cavity is the?
parietal pleura
the underlying principle of breathing is that air flows from the region of high pressure to a region of ?
low pressure
pressure changes occuring in the lungs can be traced to the activity of skeletal muscles known as?
respiratory muscles
during inspiration, the ribs are raised upward and outward by a set of respiratory muscles called?
external intercostal muscles
during inspiration, contractions cause the downward movement of a dome-shaped muscle known as the?
diaphragm
the relaxation of respiratory muscles compresses the thorax and increases the air pressure in the?
lungs
while inspiration is an active process, the process of expiration is a(n) ?
passive process
the amount of air that enters and leaves the lungs in a normal breath under resting conditions is the ?
resting tidal volume
the volume of air that can be forced out of the lungs after a forced inspiration is the ?
vital capacity
breathing is controlled by an area of the brain called the respiratory control center, which includes part of the medulla oblongate and the ?
pons
the respiratory centers in the brain are regulated indirectly by the bloodstream's level of?
carbon dioxide
the rate of breathing is controlled by an area of the brain known as the?
pneumotaxic area
the respiratory center is activated by the cerbrospinal fluid level of?
hydrogen ions
while the contraction of skeletal muscles is usually voluntary, the control of breathing is usually?
involuntary
the great majority of oxygen is carried in the body in association with?
hemoglobin molecules
looking for a type of molecules...
approximately 70-75% of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in the form of?
bicarbonate ions/sodium bicarbonate
approximately 25-30% of the carbon dioxide in the body is carried?
carboxyhemoglobin molecules
the driving force behind the exchange of gases in the alveoli is the process of?
diffusion
while active transport is an active process for the movement of molecules, diffusion is a(n)?
passive process
during lung gas exchange, oxygen molecules move toward the ?
red blood cells
during lung gas exchange, carbon dioxide molecules move toward the ?
alveolar sac
Alveoli, Type I cells are what type of cells and are primarily for ___________ ?
Simple squamous
primary site for gas exchange
Alveoli, Type II cells, are what type of cells, and ____________?
simple cuboidal
produce alveolar fluid with surfactant
gas exchange between pulmonary capillaries and air in alveoli are known as ?
external respiration
what type of respiration?
gas exchange between tissue capillaries and interstitual fluid?
internal respiration
what type of respiration?
pressure changes during pulmonary ventilation (inhalation) changes in the alveola from _______ mmHg to _________mmHg.
760 mmHg to 758 mmHg.
forced inhalation uses which accessory muscles?
sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor
4 factors which can cause low compliance of lungs?
scar tissue in lungs (Tb, emphysema)
fluid in lung tissue (pulmonary edema)
lack of surfactant
inspiratory muscle paralysis
coughing, sneezing, sighing, yawning, crying, sobbing, laughing, hiccupping are all examples of ?
modified breathing
chest raises due to external intercostals (shallow)
costal breathing
which type of breathing is known when abdomen protrudes due to diaphragm (deep)
diaphragmatic breathing
tidal volume
volume of one quit breath
500 mL.
minute ventilation
what is the formula
total volume each minute
500 mL/breath x 12 breaths/min=6L/min
inspiratory reserve volume
additional amount that can be inhaled (FORCED)
3100 mL.
expriatory reserve volume
additional amount that can be exhaled after normal inhalation
1200 mL.
residual volume
air remaining in lungs/airways after maximum exhalation
1200 mL.
anatomic dead space
trachea, bronchi, air which never makes it to the lungs.
150 mL (30% of tidal)
alveolar ventilation rate
FORMULA ?
amount of air that reaches respiratory membrane each minute
500 mL (tidal) - 150 mL. (dead space) = 350 mL/breath
Inspiratory capacity
FORMULA
total of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve
500 mL. + 3100 mL = 3600 mL.
functional residual volume (capacity)
FORMULA
total of residual volume and expiratory reserve
1200 mL + 1200 mL. = 2400 mL
vital capacity
total of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve
500 + 3100 + 1200 = 4800 mL.
total lung capacity
total of vital capacity and residual volume
4800 + 1200 = 6000 mL (6 L.)
spirometer
measures volumes and respiratory rate.
Daltons Law
"each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present"
rate of gas exchange depends on, 4 factors...
partial pressure difference of the gasses ( high altitude sickness
surface area available for gas exchange (emphysema
diffusion distance (edema)
molecular weight and solubility of gases
oxyhemoglobin is also referred to as ____________?
fully saturated (4 O2)
deoxyhemoglobin is also referred to as?
partially saturated, P.O2 is high, Hb binds larg. amount of oxygen
which hormones affect BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate) to shift to the right (low affinity = weak binding)
TH
hGH
E/NE
testosterone
high ____ and ______ pH. will allow inspiratory area to override voluntary holding of breath?
high CO2 and low pH. ...
central chemoreceptors respond to ___, ___, and changes in ___?
pH., CO2, and CSF.
peripheral chemoreceptors respond to ___, ___, and ___ changes in blood.
pH., CO2, and O2
inflation reflex protects...?
protects from overinflation of lungs, baroreceptors detect stretch in bronchi and bronchioles, send inhibitory inputs to inspiratory and apneustic centers
somatic pain can cause ______ breathing?
rapid
prolonged visceral pain can cause?
slowed breathing