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72 Cards in this Set

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Define Internal Respiration
Exchange of o2 and co2 between tissue blood, capillaries and tissue cells
Define External Respiration
Exchange of o2 and co2 between the air in alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
CO2
Waste material removed by the respiratory system
TRUE RIBS
1ST-7TH articulate anteriorly to the sternum via the costal cartilage
FALSE RIBS
8th - 10th
FLOATING RIBS
11TH-12TH
Respiratory system
tract that presents an open passage leading from exterior to lungs
Thoracic vertebrae
protect the resp system by anchoring the thoracic ribs that house the mediastinum and lungs
intercostal muscles
originates at inferior border of corresponding rib; inser at superior border of rib below
clavicles
lie horizontally in superior anterior part of thorax, superior to 1st rib
3 parts of sternum
manubrium, body, xyphoid
xyphoid
smallest portion of sternum
body
largest portion of sternum
angle of louis
junction of manubrium and body of sternal angle
Provides anterior attachment of ribs via costal cartilage
diaphragm
dome shaped skeletal muscle that forms the floor of the thoracic cavity
diaphragm
most important muscle of inspiration
Accessory Muscles
SCM, SCALENE, PERTORALIS MINOR/MAJOR, SCAPULA
SCM
sternum/clavicle
scapula
post thorax between 2nd-7th ribs
scalenes
cervical/vertical insertion at 1st-2nd ribs
Intercostal Neurovascular Bundle
Costal groove of 1st-9th ribs contains intercostal artery, viens and nerves
Pleura
serous membrane covering lungs and lining the thoracic cavity
Parietal Pleura
outer layer partitions off the mediastinum and lines entire thoracic cavity
visceral pleura
covers the surface of the lungs
Vestibule
Anterior cartilagenous membrance inside nares
hard palate
formed by palatine bone, and pallatine process of maxilla
PARTS of Pharynx
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx
has 5 openings: 2 Eustachian tubes; 2 internal nares; 1 oropharynx
Oropharynx
extends from soft palate to the level of hyoid bone; contains palatine and lingual tonsils
laryngopharynx
located below teh hyoid bone and behind larynx...opens into larynx and esophagus
Function of Pharynx
serves as passage for Respiratory and Digestive systems
Larynx
connects the phrarynx with trachea
Laryngeal cartilages
Thyroid, cricoid, epiglottic
Thyroid
largest and forms the laryngeal prominence (Adam's Apple)
Cricoid
Ring of cartilage, forms interior wall of larynx
Epiglottic
Leaf shaped elastic cartilage, attached to the superior border of thyroid cartilage
Mainstem Bronchi
R bronchus is shorter, wider and takes and vertical course compared to the L bronchus
R lung
3 lobes; horizontal and oblique fissures
L lung
Oblique fissures
Carina
projection where the trachea divides into L/R bronchi
Triggers cough reflex
hilum
depression of mediastinal surface of each lung, serves as entrance for bronchi, blood vessels and nerves into lungs
alveoli
functional unit of lungs
alveoli
gaseous exchange between blood and air occurs here
TYPE 1 Alveolar
(SQUAMOUS PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS)
main sites where gas exchange takes place
TYPE 2 Alveolar
(SEPTAL CELLS)
Secrete alveolar fluid keeping alveolar cells moist
alveolar macrophages
(dust cells)
wandering phagocytes which remove dust particles and otehr debris in the alveolar space
Pulmonary Surfactant
Detergent like mixture of phospholipids and lipo protein decreases surface tension of alveolar fluid reducing tendency of alveoli to collapse completely
Pulm Arteries
carry blood from r vent to resp surfaces of lungs back to l atrium. carry deoxygenated blood
Pulm Veins
joins from pulm veins which carry oxygenated blood from lungs to L atrium
Pulm Lympathics
Drains lymph from interstitial spaces in lungs to lymph vesses to the r lymph/thoracic ducts - r/l subclavian veins
Eupnea
normal quiet breathing
orthopnea
dyspnea when sitting up
Hyperppnea
abnorm increase in depth and rate of resp
Hypervent
rate of insp that's required to maintain increase/decrease level of PCO2
Apnea
Temp cessation of breathing
Tachypnea
Excessing rapidity of resp
Bradypnea
abnorm slow breathing
Pulm Resp
exchange of gases between the atmosphere and teh alveoli
Boyle's Law
when size of closed container is increased, pressure inside is decreased (Vice Versa) while temp remains constant
chemoreceptors
monitor co2 and o2 levels and provide input to resp center to determine how fast/deep we breath
Stretch receptor
located in walls of brochi/bronchoiles (baroreceptors)
HERING-BREUER REFLEX
insp areas are no longer inhibited and new insp begins
Limbic system
anticipation of activity or emotional anxiety increase the rate/depth of resp
residual volume
air remains in alveoli and airways after exp = 1200ml
vital capacity
sum of insp reserve vol, TV, and exp reserve vol = 4800ml
total lung capacity
sum of all volumes = 6000 ml
PFT
Conducted to measure vol/rate of vent with spirometer
forced vital capacity
measure max vent vol avail to pt under condition of stress
abg
dx/tx of disturbance of acid base balance (p02/pc02
diffusion gradient
exchange of gases between lungs and blood from higher - lower concentration
alveolar capillary membrane
alveolar and cap wall
02
98.5% transported in combo with hemoglobin in RBCs

=oxyhemoglobin