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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two types of asthma
Allergic reaction and non-allergic reaction. Ex first: allergies, example second: exercise induced.
Characteristics of asthma attack.
Histamines and other chemicals released which result in inflmmation of the airways, bronchioles constrict spasmodically and person has extreme trouble breathing.
What is emphysema
Aveoli damaged due to smoking, less effective respiratory membrane area => less O2 into blood. Lung tissue becomes fibrotic and looses some of its elasticity => collapse during expiration and trapping of air. Weak chest muscles do to barrow-chest.
Characteristics of lung cancer
Tissues are damaged. 90% orginate in or around mucous membranes of the large bronchi resulting in compression of airway and possitble collapse of more distant parts of the lung.
What is tension?
The forces that must be overcome to expand the volume in a flexible container.
What is the Bohr Effect
The result of the impact of a declining pH on the molecular configuration of hemoglobin, which causes more release of O2 from hemoglobin.
What is the Haldane Effect?
The ability of hemoglobin to beind to more CO2 when O2 unloads from hemoglobin.
What is Tidal Volume
The amount of air taken in or blown out in a normal breath.
What is the Minute Volume?
The amount of air moved in one minute = TidalVol x RR
What is Alveolar Ventilation?
Indicates the volume of air that is actually exposed to the respiratory membrane over a certain period of time. Alveolar ventilation rate = (tidal volume - dead space) x RR.
Four functions of the respiratory system.
1) Transport of O2 to tissues and removal of CO2 from tissues.
2) Regulation of pH
3) Protection from some microbes and irritants
4) Vocalization
How is the respiratory system protected?
1) Hairs inthe nose trap irritants.
2) Mucus membranes with cilia that move irritants to the throat for swallowing and destruction by stomach acid.
3) Macrophages within the Alveoli which can attach some microbes.
What is the respiratory membrane?
The structure through which O2 and CO2 are exchanged between the alveoli sac and a nearby pulmonary capillary.
What are three features of the respiratory membrane?
1) Type I cells - the basic epithelial cell composing the membrane.
II) Type II cells - 5% of the cells in the membrane produce a surfactant that coats the membrane and reduces the surface tension.
iii) Alveoli macrophages - destroy microbes. There are more macrophages in the lungs then any other cell.
What are the pleurae
i. Viseral pleura that lines the outside of the lungs
ii. Parietal pleura that adheres to surrounding structures, e.g. rib cage, diaphram, etc.
What is Boyle's law?
P = 1/V (pressure = inverse of volume)
How does Boyle's law relate to the events of respiration?
Diaphram contracts and expands the intrapleural space => decrease in pressure in this space => pulls on visceral lining of lungs => increased intrapulmonary space (lungs expand) => decreased pressure => air drawn in from outside.
What is the significance of the negative pressure in the intrapleural space?
i. Keep the lungs expanded somewhat at all times, i.e. not collapsed.
ii. Expand the lungs during inspiration.
What are the major physical factors which affect pulmonary ventilation?
i. Resistance
ii. Lung compliance
What affects the resistance of pulmonary ventilation?
R can be incrased by constriction of the bronchi or bronchioles. The major resistance is the medium size bronchi and NOT the bronchioles.
What affects lung compliance?
i. Compliance of the tissue.
ii. Lack of surfactant
iii. Chest wall muscles paralyzed or ribs are calcified.
What is Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Premature babies may lack sufficient surfactant production - type II cells.
How can pulmonary function by evaluated? Name of the piece of equipment.
What is the Tidal Volume
The amount of air taken in or blown out in a normal breath.
What is physiological and anatomical dead space?
The anatomical dead space includes the conducting zone: trachea, mouth, etc.

The physiological dead space is the region of air that is in the respiratory zone, but does not participate in diffusion because there is a mismatch between ventilation and perfusion.
What is Dalton's law?
The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of its components in a gas mixture.
What is Henry's law?
A gas in contact with a liquid will dissolve in proportion to its partial pressure.
How do the partial pressures of the gases in the atmosphere and alveoli differ?
The pp of moisture is considerably higher in the lungs, ~ 47 mm Hg.

There is mixing and dilution of incoming air with the air already in the lungs that has residual CO2 in it.
What are the factors affecting gas diffusion?
Concentration diff. across membrane.
Thickness of the membrane.
Surface area of the membrane.
For sea level, state the PO2 and PCO2 for
Inspired air.
Aveolar air.
Oxygenated blood.
Tissue fluid
Deoxygenated blood
Expired air
Inspired air PO2/PCO2 100/44
Aveolar air 100/44
Oxygenated blood 100/44
Tissue fluid 40/45
Deoxygenated blood 40/45
Expired air 120/27
What is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction?
Pulmonary vessels are constricted for a given area of the lungs if hypoxia is detected. The blood is diverted to good regions of the lungs.
How is O2 transported in the blood?
O2 attaches to Fe in a heme group. Four heme groups per hemoglobin molecule.
How is oxygen transport affected by temperature?
Increased temperature will result in a right shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. Therefore, more O2 will be unloaded.
How does the pH affect oxygen transport?
Decreasing pH results in a right shift of the O2-Hb dissassociation curve => more O2 unloaded.
How does BPG affect oxygen transport?
Increase in BPG results in more O2 being unloaded.
How does pCO2 affect the transport of oxygen?
More pCO2 results in a right shift of the O2-Hb diss. curve => more O2 unloaded.
What is BPG?
BPG (bisphosphoglycerate) binds to hemoglobin and promotes oxygen unloading. It is a metabolic inermediate resulting from the fact that red blood cells have no mitochondria and meet their energy needs solely by anaerobic fermentation.
What are the four categories of disorders concerning O2 transport?
Anemia hypoxia - Too few red blood cells.

Ischemic hypoxia - Blood delivery problem to alveoli

Histotoxic hypoxia - Cellular poisoning

Hypoxic hypoxia - lack of O2 to the tissues as a result of poor ventilation due to diseas or poor oxygen in the air breathed.
How is CO2 transported in the blood?
Dissolved in the blood (7%)

As carbonic ion (HCO3-) (70%)

As CO2/blood protein, e.g. caraminohemoglobin (23%)
Describe the general organization of the respiratory control system.
In general, there are

Control mechasisms, e.g. RR

Drivers, e.g. pH

Nerve signals - dorsal and ventral resp. nuceli in the medulla

Signals to the centers in the medulla - Higher centers brain, etc.
What are the primary control mech. in respiration?
RR, volume of air moved. vasodilation and vasoconstriction of pulmonary arteries.
What are the priver drivers in the respiratory control system?
pH of blood (biggest driver), pCO2 level in blood, pO2 level in blood.
Where are the respiratory nuclei located in the brain?
Dorsal respiratory nucleus and ventral respratory nucleus housed in the medulla. Affect the inspiratory and expiratory (forced) muscles respectively.
What is the affect of alternation in CO2 for the peripheral chemoreceptors?
Decrease O2, Increase CO2, Increase H+ al result in increase in RR.
What is the affect of alterations in CO2 and H ions on the control of breathing for the central chemoreceptors?
Increase CO2, increase H+, result in increase RR.
What is the flow rate as a function of the resistance?
Flow = Pressure-Difference/R
What are the principle regions providing signals to the medulla?
Higher centers in the brain, joint and muscle receptors, irritant and stretch receptors (Hering Breuuer reflex), pain and emotional stimuli, the chemoreceptors that detect changes in the make up of the plasma and CSF.