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35 Cards in this Set

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How can the resp system be divided anatmoically?
upper respiratory tract and a lower respiratory tract
How can the resp system be divided functionally?
conducting portion (transports air, and a respiratory portion (gas exchange with the blood)
What portion of the resp system is responsible for gas exchange with the blood?
respiratory portion of the functional division of the resp system
The nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and trachea, and progressively smaller airways are part of what portion of the resp system/
conducting portion
The respiratory portion of the resp system is composed of what?
small airways called respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and air sacs called alveoli
What are some of the respiratory system functions?
breathing (inhalation and exhalation) movement of gases into and out of lungs, CONDITIONING of gases, production of sound, sense of smell, protects the body against airborne infection.
What is another name for breathing?
pulmonary ventilation
What are the 2 cyclic phases breathing consists of?
inhalation/inspiration draws gases into lungs
exhalation/expiration: forces gases out of the lungs
Why is the continuous movement of gases into and out of the lungs necessary?
for the process of gas exchange. Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and transports carbon dioxide produced by the body cells to the lungs for removal
What transports oxygen from the lungs and where does it go?
blood to the body cells
blood transports carbon dioxide produced by the body cells to what?
the lungs for removal
What is exhalation?
forces carbon dioxide produced by the body cells to the lungs for removal
What are the 2 types of gas exchange?
External respiration: gas exchange between the atmosphere and the blood (O2 diffuses from the lungs into the blood while CO2 diffuses out of the blood into the air spaces in the lungs in order to be exhaled)
Internal respiration: gas exchange between the blood and the cells throughout the body.
How does the gas exchange in external respiration take place?
O2 diffuses from the lungs into the blood while CO2 diffuses out of the blood into the air spaces in the lungs in order to be exhaled
What does internal respiration involve?
gas exchange between the blood and the cells throughout the body
What does it mean by the gases are conditioned prior to reaching the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs?
As inhaled gases pass through conducting airways the gases are warmed to body temp, humidified, cleansed of particulate matter.
What 3 things take place as gas is conditioned prior to reaching the gas exchange surface of the lungs?
warmed to body temp, humidified, cleansed of particulate matter through contact with the respiratory epithelium and its sticky mucus covering.
What cleanses the gas as it is inhaled?
contact with the respiratory epithelium and its sticky mucus covering facilitated by the wisted pathways through the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, which cause the inhaled air to become very turbulent during inhalation
What produces sound?
as air is forced out of lungs and moves through the larynx
What anatomic structures aid sound production?
nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, teeth, lips, tongue
What covers the superior region of the nasal cavity?
olfactory epithelium which contains chemoreceptors for the sense of smell
What contains chmoreceptors for smell?
olfactory epithelium, these receptors detect inhaled molecules that dissolve in teh mucus overlying the olfactory epithelium
What protects the body against airborne infection?
The structre of the resp system and some of the cells in the resp epithelium
What is the enzyme that is produced by epithelium and what does it do?
lysozyme, destroys microbial cell walls, the mucus traps inhaled dust, microbes, insects, and pollen, defensive mucus production can increase when lg quantities of irritating materials enter.
What helps protect the body against airborne infection?
nose hairs (vibrassae), twisted passageways, epithelium producing mucus and lysozyme
What is CF?
cystic fibrosis, involves defective plasma membrane proteins that affect chloride ion channels in the membrane. The chloride channels are transport proteins that use facilitated diffusion to move chloride ions across the plasma membrane. The genetic defect that causes CF results in the formation of abnormal chloride channel proteins in the membranes of cells lining the respiratory passageways and ducs in glands, such as the pancreas.
The genetic defect that causes CF results in the formation of what?
abnormal chloride channel proteins in the membranes of cells lining the respiratory passageways and ducts in gland
The defect in the chloride channels results in what happening?
An abnormal flow of chloride ions across the membrane, causing salt to be trapped within the cytoplasm of affected cells.
If salt is trapped within the cytoplasm of affected cells of people with CF, what happens within the cytoplasm?
The concentration within the cytoplasm of these cells causes an increase in the osmotic flow of H20 into the cell, thereby resulting in thickening of the mucus in the respiratory passageways and the pancreatic ducts which plugs airways
What can produce CF?
A single genetic and biochemical defect in a transport protein.
What can cause an abnormal flow of chloride ions across the membrane in CF?
abnormal chloride channel proteins causing salt to be trapped within the cytoplasm of affected cells.
What organ does CF affect?
pancreas
How can you tell if a baby has CF?
tastes salty
What is a treatment for CF?
antibiotics for pulmonary infections, and treating the mucus in the lungs. Mucus builds up and blocks the bronchial tree, leading to chronic respiratory infections
Why is CF dangerous?
results in thickened mucus that obstructs both the respiratory passageways and ducts of glands such as the pancreatic ducts (prevents digestive enzymes from entering the small intestine)