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14 Cards in this Set

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Esophageal varices
Swollen vein of the eosphagus that ruptures causing death to 35% of cases
Caused by increase portal pressure by damage to liver
s/s hematemesis w/ bright red blood, dysphagia (diff swallowing, burnig of tearing sensation, classic signs of shock
Cheyne-stokes respirations
Ventilatory pattern w/ progressively increased tidal volume followed by a declining volumeseparated by periods of apnea at the end of expiration.
Seen in older pt. w/ terminal illness or brain injury
Kussmauls respirations
Deep, rapid breaths that result as a corrective measure against conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis that produce metabolic acidosis
Central Neurogenic hyperventilation
Deep, rapid respirations that are often caused by strokes or injury to the brain stem.
In this case there is loss of normal ventilatory control and respiratory alkalosis is often seen
atcxic (Biot's) respirations
Repeated episodes of gasping ventilations separated by periods of apnea
This is seen in pt. w/ increased ICP
Adult respiratory distress syndrom (ARDS)
Form of pulmonary edema that is caused by fluid accumlation in the interstitial space within the lungs.
s/s Dyspnea, confusion, agitation, fatigue, reduced exercise ability, tachycardia, tachypnea, crackles (rales)
Emphysema
Results from destruction of the alveolar walls distal to the treminal bronchioles. Decreasing the alveolar membrane surface area, thus lessening the area for gas exchange
s/s Emphysema
Recent weight loss, increased dyspnea on exertion,rarely associated w/ cough except in morning. barrel chest, prolonged expiratory phase, pink in color (pink puffer), pursed lips, clubed fingers, diminished breath sounds, signs of R. heart failure, one-two word dyspnea, accessory muscle
Chronic bronchitis
results from an increase in the number of the golblet (mucus secreting) cells in the respiratory tree. Gass exchange is decreased because fo the lower alveolar ventilation.
s/s Chronic Bronchitis
History of frequent respiratory infections, cough up considerable amount of sputum daily, tend to be overweight and cyanotic (blue bloaters), rhonchi due to occlusions w/ mucus plugs. Signs of R. heart failure
Pneumonia
Infection of the lungs. Fluid and inflammatory cells collect in the alveoli, and alveolar collapse may occur.
s/s Pneumonia
May appear ill, Hx fo fever and chills, weakness and malaise, deep productive cough my expel yellowto brown sputum often streaked w/ blood, pleuritic chest pain, tachypnea, tachycardia, crackles (rales)
Pulmonary embolism
A blood clot or other partical that lodges in a pulmonary artery blocking blood flow through that vessel
s/s Pulmonary embolism
Severe unexplained dyspnea, recent Hx of immobilization, labored breathing, tachypnea, tachycardia, may see signs of R. heart failure. 50% of cases have finding suggestive of deep venous thrombosis, including warm swolled extremity, pain on palpation and when extending the calf