• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Clara cells have what function? Describe the cell type.
Nonciliated columnar cell with secretory granules. These secretory granules secrete components of surfactant and also degrade toxins.
Clara cells act as reserve cells
Oblique fissure on which lobe
Right lobe
Aspirate a peanut upright
lower portion of right inferior lobe
Aspirate a peanut supine
Upper portion of right inferior lobe
(laying down, it doesnt go to the most bottom portion of the right inferior lobe)
RALS
Describes the location of the r/l BRONCHUS relative to the Pulmonary artery
Right Anterior
Left Superior
Pnemonic Diaphragm structure
I Ate Ten Eggs At 12
IVC T8
Esophagus T10
Aorta T12

Also, vagus (2trunks) at T10
T12 also has the thoracic duct and azygous vein
Patient has trouble with passive breathing on inspiration. Where else might he have pain?
Passive inspiration = diaphragm.

Referred pain in shoulder.
Exercise - Inspiration. Muscles Used?
External intercostal muscles
Scalene Muscles
Sternomastoids

Sternomastoid + scalene are located above the ribs.
Pnemonic Diaphragm structure
I Ate Ten Eggs At 12
IVC T8
Esophagus T10
Aorta T12

Also, vagus (2trunks) at T10
T12 also has the thoracic duct and azygous vein
Exercise - Expiration. Muscles Used?
Internal Intercostals
Internal and External Obliques
Transversus Abdominis
Rectus Abdominis
Patient has trouble with passive breathing on inspiration. Where else might he have pain?
Passive inspiration = diaphragm.

Referred pain in shoulder.
Why doesn't left lung have middle lobe?
The "middle lobe" space is occupied by the heart.
Exercise - Inspiration. Muscles Used?
External intercostal muscles
Scalene Muscles
Sternomastoids

Sternomastoid + scalene are located above the ribs.
Exercise - Expiration. Muscles Used?
Internal Intercostals
Internal and External Obliques
Transversus Abdominis
Rectus Abdominis
Why doesn't left lung have middle lobe?
The "middle lobe" space is occupied by the heart.
Collapsing pressure eq.
P = (2*Surface tension)/ Radius

Surfactant decreases surface tension thereby decreasing the collapsing pressure of the lungs.
Law of Laplace implies what with respect to lung physioogy?
As the radius decreases, there is a tendency to collapse. I.e. during expiration, there is a tendency for lungs to collapse.
Kallikrein is a lung product. Effect?
Activates bradykinin -causes cough and angioedema in the lungs.
Ace is produced by lungs. What does Angiotensin II do in the heart?
Inactivates bradykinin ; ACE inhibitors will thus increase bradykinin, leading to cough and angioedema.
Cannot be measured on spirometry
Residual volume
Tidal volume typically
500 ml
Taco Paco Peco Paco
The equation for determining Vd (Dead space)
Vd = Vt * (PaCo2-PeCo2)/(PaCo2)

PeCo2 = Expired Air PCO2
What is the greatest Contributor of functional dead space?
The APEX of the health lung

Anatomical Dead space is in the Conducting Zone
Functional Dead Space is the dead space in ALVEOLI
Only areas of conducting zone with cartilage
Trachea and Bronchi
Fetal hemoglobin has what units
2 Alpha and 2 Gamma
Key difference between physiologic mechanisms of hemoglobin and myoglobin?
Hemoglobin exhibits positive cooperativity and negative allostery.
Factors favoring the Taut form over relaxed form in hemoglobin. Physiologic significance?
Increase CL-, H+, Temperature, CO2, 2,3 BPG

H+ and CO2 go together since they both decrease pH]

Right shift on dissociation curve (O2 unloading)
WHY does Fetal hemoglobin have a higher affinity for O2 than Adult hemoglobin?
Has a lower affinity for 2,3BPG and hence a higher affinity for O2.
Describe the chemical characteristics of Methemoglobin.
Oxidized Hemoglobin (Iron in Fe3+) state. Decreased affinity for O2 and an increased affinity for CN-.

In
Cyanide poisoning - describe tx ./ pathophys.
Tx - Nitrite / Thiosulfate

Nitrite oxidizes hemoglobin to Methemoglobin which has high affinity for CN. Binding allows cytochrome oxidase to function. Use thiosulfate to bind to this cyanide - forms thiocyanate which is renally excreted.
Carboxyhemoglobin has what two effects on hemoglobin.
Carboxyhemoglobin = CO bound to hemoglobin. (The only thing with a "Carbox" bound to Hb is CO2)

1. O2 LEFT shift!!! thus leading to decreased unloading of O2.
i.e. CO actually increases the O2 affinity of Hb, but less O2 is bound because the affinity of CO is so darn high.
2. Decreased oxygen binding capacity because CO has 300x greater affinity (Hb greatly prefers CO)
C-BEAT
Right Shift HB curve
CO2
BPG
Exercise
Acid/Altitude
Temperature

INCREASING things (except pH) generally leads to a right shift. i.e. too much in the env. leads to Hb having less affinity
Diffusion
Vgas = A/T x Dk(P1-P2)
A= Area
T= Thickness
Dk(P1-P2) = Difference in partial pressures

Emphysema decreases A (amount of viable tissue is decreased)
Fibrosis increases T (Fibrosed tissue is thicker)
Changes in pulmonary artery in PHTN
Atherosclerosis, Medial Hypertrophy, Intimal Fibrosis of pulmonary arteries.
Pulmonary circulation with respect to resistance and compliance
Pulm circulation is low resistance, high compliance
Pulmonary Hypertension is marked by what changes?
Atherosclerosis, Medial Hypretrophy, Intimal Fibrosis.
Pulm Hypertension definition based on lab results
Normal Pulm Hypertension = 10-14 mmHg

> 25 mmHg = pulm hyp
or
>35 mmHg during exercise
Primary pulm Hypertension = mutation in?
BMPR2 . Inhibits smooth muscle vascular proliferation. Mutated in Primary pulm hypertension. ONLY this form is Primary. All other forms are secondary.
PVR formula (Pulmonary vascular resistance(
PVR = (Pressure(pulm artery)- Pressure(left atrium i.e. CWP))/ Cardiac Output
Alveolar Gas equation
PAO2 = PIO2 - (PaCO2/R)
Approximated as
PAO2 = 150 - (PaCO2/R)

PIO2 = inspired air
Normal A-a Gradient?
10-15 mmHg
O2 content in blood - Formula?
O2 Content = (O2 Binding Capacity * % saturation) + Dissolved O2
Wasted ventilation occurs at
The Apex (V/Q =3)
Wasted Perfusion occurs at
Base of lung (V/Q = .6)
3 ways CO2
1. Bicarbonate (95%)
2. CO2 bound to N terminus of globin on hemoglobin (referred to as Carbaminohemoglobin). CO2 binding favors the taut form (O2 releasE)
3. Dissolved CO2
Exercise results in vasodialtion of which capillaries in the lungs?
The Apical capillaries. There is normally a V/Q mismatch here (V/Q>3) such that it makes sense to selectively vasodilate this region to normalize the excess Ventilation.