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132 Cards in this Set

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What is the main function of the respiratory system?
To bring oxygen into the body and eliminate carbon dioxide from the body.
Trace the pathway of air from the outside of the body into the body.
Air enters the nose through the external nares. Then the air passes through the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchus, and into the lungs.
Describe the location of the visceral and parietal pleura.
Visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs. Parietal lines the mediastinum, the diaphragm, and the thoracic wall.
What is the function of pleural fluid?
Assists in breathing movements by acting as a lubricant.
Trace the pathway of air from the trachea to the respiratory zone.
Trachea, to primary bronchi, to secondary bronchi, to tertiary bronchi, to smaller bronchi, to bronchioles, to terminal bronchioles, to respiratory zone.
Describe the difference between bronchi and bronchioles in terms of smooth muscle and cartilage.
Bronchi have rings of cartilage that keep them open. Bronchioles have no cartilage, but they do have smooth muscle in their walls.
What is the function of the smooth muscle of the bronchioles?
To allow airflow regulation by altering the diameter of the bronchioles.
Where is the conducting zone and what is its function?
The conducting zone is the airway from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles. Its function is to moisten, warm, and filter the air.
Where are three places alveoli are found?
(1) In respiratory bronchioles where they are scattered in the walls.

(2) In alveolar ducts, which are completely lined by alveoli.

(3) In alveolar sacs, where they are found in clusters.
What are the names of the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs?
The pulmonary arteries and branches of the pulmonary arteries.
What are the names of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the lungs?
The pulmonary veins and branches of the pulmonary veins.
Which contain blood that is higher in oxygen, the pulmonary arteries or the pulmonary veins?
The pulmonary veins.
Where are the pulmonary capillaries found within the lung?
They surround each alveolus.
What three cell types are found within alveoli?
(1) simple squamous epithelium

(2) alveolar macrophages

(3) surfactant-secreting cells
What is the function of the alveolar macrophages, or dust cells, within alveoli?
They creep along the inner surface of the alveoli, removing debris and microbes.
What is the function of the surfactant-secreting, or Type II cells, within alveoli?
They secrete surfactant.
What is present on the inside surface of alveoli?
Alveolar fluid, which is composed of water and surfactant.
What would happen if there were no surfactant in alveolar fluid?
The alveoli would collapse due to the surface tension of the water.
Why is there no interstitial fluid in between the two layers of simple squamous epithelium in the respiratory membrane?
Because pulmonary blood pressure is so low that little fluid filters out of the capillaries into the interstitial space.
What two important gases diffuse across the respiratory membrane? In which direction does each gas flow?
Oxygen gas diffuses from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli.
What controls the basic rhythm of breathing?
Respiratory centers located in the brainstem.
What monitors changes in arterial PCO2, PO2 and pH?
Sensory receptors called chemoreceptors.
What is the Hering-Breuer reflex?
Stretch receptors in the visceral pleura and large airways send inhibitory signals to the inspiratory center during very deep inspirations, protecting against excessive stretching of the lungs.
Do changes in PCO2 and PO2 play a significant role in stimulating increased ventilation due to exercise?
No they do not play a significant role.
How is the volume of the thoracic cavity changed?
By muscle contraction and relaxation.
What two muscles contract during quiet inspiration? What is the effect of their contraction?
The diaphragm and the external intercostals. As a result the thoracic cavity enlarges in all dimensions.
What happens to pressure when we increase the volume within the thoracic cavity and the lungs?
Pressure decreases.
Explain what happens in quiet expiration.
The diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles relax, and the elastic lungs and thoracic wall recoil inward.
What effect does quiet expiration have on the volume of the thoracic cavity? How does this effect the pressure within the cavity?
The volume is decreased and therefore the pressure increases within the thoracic cavity.
What three factors cause the intrapleural pressure to be less than intrapulmonary (alveolar) pressure?
(1) The surface tension of the alveolar fluid.

(2) The elasticity of the lungs.

(3) The elasticity of the thoracic wall.
Why does a lung collapse if you cut into the pleural cavity?
Because the pressure of the intrapleural cavity becomes equal to atmospheric pressure. There is no longer less pressure in the intrapleural cavity compared to within the alveoli so the lung collapses.
If a pneumothorax occurs in one lung, why doesn't it also occur in the other lung?
Each lung has its own pleural cavity and pleural membranes so that changes in the intrapleural pressure of one lung do not affect the other lung.
Does histamine constrict or dilate bronchioles?
Constrict
Does epinephrine constrict or dilate bronchioles?
Dilate
What two factors is lung compliance dependent upon?
(1) The stretchability of the elastic fibers within the lungs.

(2) The surface tension within the alveoli.
After holding your breath for a minute, what would happen to the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid bathing the respiratory centers of the medulla?
Lower
What is the official term for the lung volume we determined when we used the spirometer to see who had the greatest number (about 6 liters)?
vital capacity
If you are careful about how you breathe, you should be able to measure each component of lung volumes with our simple spirometer except one. Which one?
residual volume
What is the official word for the cuff you use to measure blood pressure from the brachial artery?
sphygmomanometer
Why would a lung collapse from a puncture wound between the ribs?
intrapleural space has same pressure as atmospheric
What would happen if there were no surfactant in alveolar fluid?
high surface tension would make breathing difficult at best
What is the Heymer test for respiratory reserve?
ability to hold breath
Which ventricle pumps to the pulmonary circulation?
right
What is apnea?
not breathing
Why shouldn't you give pure O2 to a hospital patient who needs oxygen?
CO2 is the stimulus for breathing
If you are careful about how you breathe, you should be able to measure each component of lung volumes with our simple spirometer (the blue non-computer ones near the sink) except one. Which one?
residual volume
What artery do you usually use for arterial blood pressure?
brachial
The PowerLab defaults to the wrong units on the ordinate. Where do you get the information that allows you to calibrate the record?
measure volume on spirometer
Looking at the nomogram, what would you expect to happen to vital capacity with increasing age?
decrease
If you were to suck mercury through a tube, what is the highest (in mm) the mercury
would rise?
760
How many lobes does each lung have?
Right = 3

Left = 2
Surfactant decreases which property of water?
surface tension
When you smoke, what is paralyzed in the trachea?
cilia
During a pneumothorax, what is the state of the pressure in the intrapleural space compared to the external pressure?
equal (external=atmospheric)
Oxygen comes back to the heart from the lungs via which vasculature?
pulmonary vein
We measure oxygen and carbon dioxide individually. What type of pressure is this?
partial pressure
Which ion is CO2 converted to in the RBC to be carried back to the lungs?
bicarbonate
Where are the chemoreceptors for respiration located in the brain?
medulla
Which enzyme converts CO2 to H2CO3?
carbonic anhydrase
What is 760mm of mercury equal to?
1 atmosphere of pressure
What is the functional unit of the lung where gasses exchange?
alveoli
What is the name of the compartment between the lung and the ribs (and diaphragm)?
intrapleural space
What is the name of the cell type of the capillaries where gas exchanges after crossing the cells in the lung?
endothelium
Name 2 things the upper respiratory tract does to air that enters the nose.
warms, filters, humidifies
Name of the volume of a single inspiration and expiration (normal breathing)?
tidal volume
What drug, a naturally occurring hormone, is inhaled to open the airway?
adrenalin
Which gas is indirectly monitored to stimulate breathing?
CO2
Which protein in blood transports oxygen?
hemoglobin
How many oxygen molecules can a single hemoglobin molecule bind?
4
Which metal is present in hemoglobin?
iron
(Increased/Decreased) temperature decreases oxygen binding to hemoglobin.
Increased
Is CO2 or O2 more dissolvable in water?
CO2
What function does it serve for chloride to come into and go out of red blood cells?
The chloride shift exchanges for bicarbonate to transport carbon dioxide
Assume atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg, what (approximately) is the pressure in the intrapleural cavity?
just a few mm Hg less
Why do premature babies have a hard time breathing?
high surface tension b/c of lack of surfactant
Why is asbestos worse for smokers?
cilia are blocked
Why would you need to remove the carbon dioxide in a recording spirometer's bell jar while you are studying the subject?
otherwise, increasing CO2 would increase stimulus for breathing until the subject was breathing real hard
According to a figure, at the end of tidal inspiration, "The first 150 ml is stale air from the dead space." Why "stale" and what did they mean "dead space" in this example?
what is in the tubes is not fresh air, it was air that was from the lungs, the tubes do not do any exchange
The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli is 100 mm Hg. Why isn't it as high as the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere?
because partial pressures of CO2 and H2O, high in the lungs but not the atmosphere, divide the partial pressures into more parcels
As blood returns toward alveoli, the partial pressure for carbon dioxide is 46 mm Hg. Approximately what is this value as blood leaves the alveoli toward the tissues?
40, it is interesting that it is that high
How does a famous graph explain that Maze's baby was getting all the oxygen it needed across the placenta?
the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve - fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for O2 than adult (maternal) hemoglobin
What is the mechanism for the large pH variability in the cerebrospinal fluid that controls respiration?
there are no buffers (as there are in the blood) for the acidification caused by CO2
List 2 of the 4 primary functions of the respiratory system.
• Exchange gases between the atmosphere and the blood.
• Homeostatic regulation of pH through the regulartion of CO2
• Protection from inhaled patholgens and irritating substances
• Vocalization.
The right lung has __(a)___(fill in number) lobes and the left lung has ____(b)____ lobes.
(a) (right) = 3 lobes

(b) (left) = 2 lobes
Give one reason for the existence of the pleural membrane.
1) so that the opposing membranes can slide across one another

2) It holds the lungs tight against the thoracic wall and holds them stretched in a partially inflated state.
When the volume of a gas decreases, its pressure ___________.
increases
Which muscles are responsible for inspiration (there are 4).
external intercostals, the scalenes, the diaphragm and the sternocleidomastoids
When you inhale, the interpleural pressure increases or decreases?
decreases
What is the name of the substance that disrupts surface tension within the alveoli?
surfactant
The maximum amount of air that can be moved in or out of the lungs is the __________.
vital capacity
True or false: Eventually all the air in our lungs is replaced by fresh air
FALSE
Simple diffusion of gases follows ________ law of diffusion and what is the equation?
Flicks

Diffusion = Surface Area X Concentration Gradient / Membrane Thickness X Membrane Resistance
How is most oxygen transferred through the circulatory system to the cells?
through the use of hemoglobin
How is most CO2 transferred through the circulatory system back to the lungs?
As Bicarbonate (HCO3)-
When someone (or you) breathed into a plastic bag, how did your respiration (time and depth) change?
Depth decreases, time decreases
In the medulla what exactly do the chemoreceptors respond to, to know that carbon dioxide levels are too high?
Increase in H+ ion.
True/False Homeostatic regulation of pH through the regulation of O2 is one of the main functions of the respiratory system
FALSE
True/False The pleural membrane contains many mL of liquid
FALSE
How many lobes does the left lung have?
2
Which pair of muscles are responsible for expiration
abdominal muscles and internal intercostals
When a lung is punctured, why does it deflate? (no more than 2 sentences).
Because air was allowed between the two pleural membranes and they can no longer hold the lung against the thoracic wall
What is a type I cell used for in alveoli?
gas exchange
The upper airway has a few jobs to do before the air reaches the lower respiratory system. Name one.
• Warm the air
• Take foreign materials out of the air
• Moisten the air
During inspiration the diaphragm lifts or falls?
falls
During exhalation the interpleural pressure increases or decreases?
increases
In the lungs why is surfactant needed? (2 sentences max)
So surface tension in the alveoli does not develop
The volume inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing is called the _______________.
tidal volume
The volume that is left in your lungs even after you breath out everything is called the ______________.
residual volume
After Jane exhales as far as she can, she has 125 mL of air left in her lungs. When she inhales again, she takes in 450 mL of fresh air. How much fresh air makes it to Janeπs alveoli?
450-125=325 ml
What takes blood away from the lungs?
Pulmonary veins
What takes blood to the lungs?
Pulmonary arteries
Is CO2 or O2 more soluble in water?
CO2
What is the main source of transportation for O2 in the blood?
hemoglobin
From interactive physiology, (or the book) list one of the two factors which play roles in ventilation besides muscle contraction.
• Resistance within the airway
• Lung compliance
• CNS control
Match the following:

a. Arterioles constrict
b. Arterioles dilate
c. Bronchioles constrict
d. Bronchioles dilate

__ Low PCO2
__ Low P02
__ High PCO2
__ High PO2
(c) Bronchioles constrict_ Low PCO2

(a) Arterioles constrict_ Low P02

(d) Bronchioles dilate__ High PCO2

(b) Arterioles dilate__ High PO2
What are the critical stimuli that cause changes in ventilation rate?
CO2 or H+ (Not oxygen)
Why does smoking make breathing more difficult?
Irritants in smoke inhibit the movement of cilia and destroy cilia in the lining of the respiratory system. Thus, mucus and foreign debris are not easily removed as they should.
What apparatus did we use in our lab to measure respiration?
Spirometer
What do Type II alveolar cells do?
They secrete surfactant, which lowers surface tension between alveolar cells, preventing collapse.
What happens to the lung during pneumothorax?
Air fills the pleural cavity with air, causing intrapleural pressure to be equal to atmospheric pressure rather than subatmospheric. This change causes the lung to collapse.
What is the time it takes the average individual to perform five normal breaths?
30 seconds
What does FEV (1.0) mean?
Forced Expiratory volume in one second. It is the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled from the lung in one second with maximal effort.
In an individual with a tidal volume of 500 mL/ breath, what is the alveolar ventilation rate assuming 12 breaths/ minute and 150 mL of anatomic dead space?
500-150= 350 mL/breath. 350 mL/breath x 12 breaths/ min = 4200 mL/min

Answer: 4200 mL/min
What is the residual volume and how can you measure it with spirometry?
It is the volume of air that remains in the lungs even after the expiratory reserve volume is exhaled. Trick answer: it cannot be measured by spirometry.
This minute amount of fluid not found in the lung is partly responsible for keeping the lungs partly open after full exhalation and for not allowing you to completely blow all of the air out of your lungs
Pleural fluid
This is the name for a collapsed lung sometimes caused by a stab wound to the chest opening of pleural sac
Pneumothorax
Briefly describe the function of type I and type II cells in alveoli of the lungs
Type I cells are very thin cells lining alveoli for gas exchange with capillaries

Type II cells produce surfactant
Briefly describe the movement of the diaphragm during inhalation and exhalation
Inhalation the diaphragm contracts and opens the lungs

Exhalation the diaphragm relaxes and decreases lung volume so air leaves
If a crime victim is stabbed in the chest and their pleural sac is punctured, why do their lungs collapse?
The pleural fluid leaves the pleural sac and the tension forces existing in the sac diminish and then the cohesion forces between the sac and the lungs diminishes and the lungs can no longer stay open and collapse
Which is basically passive, inhalation or exhalation? Why?
Exhalation is caused by the natural elastic recoil of the lungs and greater pressure inside the lungs than in the outside air, thus air passively moves out of the lungs and is passively forced out of the lungs by the recoil of the lungs
Chemoreceptors in the cerebrospinal fluid are activated by what signal in the fluid to increase ventilation? This signal is the result of what change in the blood stream?
H+ ions in the cerebrospinal fluid attach to the receptors and cause an increase in ventilation.

The H+ ions accumulate as a result of increase C02 concentrations in the blood and subsequently in the cerebrospinal fluid as the C02 and not O2 diffuse into the fluid and is converted into H+ ions and bicarbonate ion
Where is the respiratory control center located?
Medulla of the brain stem