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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lung lobulation

a. cattle, sheep, pigs
b. dogs, cats
c. horses
a. thick pleura extends into lung parenchyma forming distinct 2º lobules w/ interlobular CT septae (absence of collateral circulation)
b. thin pleura & no interlobular septae (no 2º lobules)
c. thick pleura & incomplete CT septae
2 types of alveolar epithelial cells
type I epithelium: 40% of cells in alveoli, but covers 95% of alveolar surfaces

type II epithelium: 60% of cells in alveoli, covers only 5% of alveolar surfaces
-produce surfactant
-progenitor cells for injured type I cells
What makes infarction in lungs less common than in other tissues?
dual blood supply
respiratory defense mechanisms
particle deposition (air turbulence, warming of air by engorged turbinate blood vessels)

mucociliary escalator

alveolar MPs

inflammatory & immune response
Obstructive lesions of nasal passages

a. signs
b. how to dx
c. etiology
a. unilateral serous nasal discharge, dyspnea, sneezing, +/- fever  bilateral purulent discharge

-microscopic exam of nasal exudate smear
-cytology, biopsy of nasal cavity
-rads, CT, MRI

-adenocarcinoma: most common nasal neoplasm in dogs
-LSA: most common nasal neoplasm in cats
-SCC: maxillary sinuses of horses
-fungal rhinitis: Aspergillus (dogs), Cryptococcus (cats > horses > dogs)
-ethmoid hematoma: horses

a. definition
b. top etiology
c. gross lesions
a. dilation of alveolar septal caps by RBCs d/t ↓ outflow of venous blood from lungs
b. left heart dz
c. diffusely deep red to purple, firm
hypostatic congestion
gravitational settling of blood in lung on down side of animal
pulmonary edema

a. definition
b. causes
a. excess extravascular accumulation of fluid in lungs, usually in alveolar spaces

↑ capillary hydrostatic pressure (most common): L heart failure

↑ permeability of cap endothelium or alveolar epi
endotoxins, corrosive gases, viruses, 100% O2

↓ plasma oncotic pressure: hypoproteinemia

lymphatic obstruction
pulmonary thrombi vs. emboli

causes of pulmonary thrombi
less common than pulmonary embolism

causes: HW dz, hypercoagulatory states, endothelial damage to blood vessels
pulmonary infarction

a. predisposing factor
b. gross lesions
a. pre-existing lung dz

b. firm, deep red to dark purple, +/- fibrinous exudate

a. definition
b. 2 main categories
c. gross lesions
a. incomplete distension or partial to complete collapse of terminal air spaces (too little air)
b. congenital, acquired
c. visibly collapsed lobe/lobule, deep red to purple, firm to meaty
congenital atelectasis: causes
-fetal: stillborn fetus

-aspiration of amniotic fluid
-dystocia --> anoxic damage to respiratory centers during birth
-hyaline membrane dz: foals, pigs (uncommon): deficient production of surfactant by type II epithelial cells--> hyaline membranes line many airspaces
acquired atelectasis: 2 forms, causes, pathogenesis
obstructive: most common form of acquired atelectasis
- bronchioles or bronchi obstructed by:
o inflammatory exudate or other foreign debris
o parasites
o neoplastic cells
-pathogenesis: air trapped distal to obstructed bronchiole --> air resorbed --> terminal air spaces collapse
-occurs most commonly in lobulated lungs (lack collateral ventilation)

-external compression of lung causes by:
o excessive accumulation of fluids, blood, pus, or air in thoracic cavity
o space occupying lesions

a. definition
b. 2 forms
a. excess air in lungs
b. alveolar, intersitital
alveolar emphysema

a. pathogenesis
b. in domestic animals

a. enzymatic destruction of alveolar walls --> permanent over distension of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles

b. neither permanent over distension of terminal air spaces nor destruction of alveolar walls occurs
interstitial emphysema

a. signalment
b. predisposing factors
a. most commonly seen in animals (esp. cattle) w/ lobulated lungs d/t lack of collateral ventilation & thick interlobular septae

b. any condition causing forced expiration
-acute interstitial pneumonia
-agonal, gasping breathing
interstitial emphysema

a. pathogenesis
b. gross lesions
a. bronchioles obstructed or collapse during forced expiration --> air trapped distal to site of collapse --> rupture of air filled alveoli --> air leaks into interlobular septae

b. beaded air bubbles of varying size in interlobular spaces

a. site of inflammation
b. distribution
c. etiology
d. species affected
a. inflammatory exudate in airways (bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli)
b. cranioventral distribution
c. bacteria or Mycoplasma
d. most common type of pneumonia, esp. in cattle, sheep, pigs b/c they are raised in groups
bronchopneumonia: pathogenesis
bacteria deposited at junction of terminal bronchioles & alveolar ducts (no mucociliary escalator, sharp drop in air velocity) --> inflammation spreads to distally to alveoli & proximally into bronchioles, bronchi --> other parts of lung --> consolidation of lung lobe(s)
bronchopneumonia: predisposing factors
stress & viral infections predispose to bacterial infection

temperature, transportation, overcrowding, dirty environment

-cattle: BRSV, BVDV, IBRV, PI3V
-pigs: influenza, PRRSV, circovirus
-dogs: influenza
-chickens, turkeys: NCDV, ILTV
2 major subtypes of bronchopneumonia

suppurative bronchopneumonia

a. time course
b. exudate
a. days to weeks
b. neutrophils, cell debris
suppurative bronchopneumonia

a. etiology
b. gross lesions
a. Pasteurella multocida (cattle), Strep suis (pigs), Mycoplasma (pigs, chickens, turkeys), E. coli, other gram pos. bacteria

b. lobular involvement varies: may be normal, inflamed (dark red to dark purple, firm, slightly swollen), or atelectatic (light to deep purple, depressed or sunken)
fibrinous bronchopneumonia

a. time course
b. exudate
a. hours to days (more virulent microorgs)
b. fibrin
fibrinous bronchopneumonia

a. etiology
b. gross lesions
a. Mannheimia haemolytica (cattle), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (pigs), Pasteurella multocida (cattle, chickens), E. coli (chickens, toxogenic strains: dogs)
majority of lobules in a lobe severely inflamed: firm, swollen, intense red to yellowish red
interstitial pneumonia

a. location of inflammation
b. etiologies
a. inflammatory exudate in alveolar septal interstitium
b. toxic gases, viruses, aspirated gastric material, tissue injury, gram neg. septicemia, pancreatitis, reactive O2 species, toxic metabolites
interstitial pneumonia: pathogenesis
injury to capillary endothelium or alveolar epithelium --> leakage of plasma proteins thru interstitium into air spaces --> neutrophils +/- fibrin accumulate in alveolar interstitium w/ some spill over into air spaces --> type II cells lining alveoli MAY proliferate (4-6 d. post injury)

if source of injury persists --> interstitial fibrosis (12-14 d. post injury)
interstitial pneumonia

a. gross lesions
b. microscopic lesions
a. DIFFUSE lung lesion (deep reddish purple & slightly firm): may be hard to dx grossly

b. alveolar interstitium thickened by:
-edema, neutrophils, fibrin, proteinaceous fluid in air spaces
-lymphocytes & neutrophils (most air spaces empty, in contrast to bronchopneumonia)
granulomatous pneumonia

a. definition
b. gross lesions
c. etiologies
a. chronic pneumonia characterized by presence of epitheliod MPs &/or multinucleated giant cells

b. granulomas have necrotic centers filled w/ pus or caseous exudates encircled by layer of CT

c. Mycobacteria, fungi, Rhodococcus equi, foreign objects
-resist destruction by inflammatory response & persist in tissues

a. etiologic agent
b. signalment
c. signs
d. gross lesions
a. Blastomyces dermatitidis (fungus)

b. 2-5 yo male large breed dogs

c. slow insidious onset of wt. loss, cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance

d. granulomatous pneumonia
-multiple firm gray-white nodules of varying sizes distributed in all lobes
-advanced: diffuse, firm, non-collapsing lung
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

a. species affected
b. clinical signs
c. time course
d. mortality
a. dogs, cattle, horses, etc.
b. lethargy, anorexia, coughing, dyspnea of short duration
c. acute
d. high
ARDS: causes
1º: aspiration of gastric contents, lung trauma, inhalation of toxic gases, viral infections (ex. BRSV), Gram neg. septicemia (ex. Salmonella, E. coli)

2º: any massive tissue trauma, pancreatitis
ARDS: pathogenesis
initiating event --> activation of neutrophils & MPs --> secretion of pro- & anti- inflammatory cytokines --> imbalance of antagonistic cytokines --> cellular injury --> disruption of capillary endothelial & alveolar epithelial barriers --> interstitial edema & alveolar flooding w/ protein rich fluid

a. lesions
b. ddx for lesions
c. possible outcomes
a. acute interstitial pneumonia: diffusely firm lung

b. congestion & edema, acute interstitial pneumonia

c. death, acute recovery, or chronic recovery w/ alveolar fibrosis beginning 10-14 d. post onset
canine distemper virus

a. lung lesions
b. common complication
c. microscopic lesions
a. focal or MF firm gray to reddish purple pneumonic areas (interstitial pneumonia)

b. 2º bacterial infections --> suppurative bronchopneumonia, which obscures interstitial pneumonia

c. intranuclear or intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells of lung, kidney, bladder, etc.
primary lung tumors

a. species most commonly affected
b. less common primary tumors
a. dogs, then cats, rare in other animals

b. disseminated histiocytic sarcoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, carcinoid, ovine pulmonary carcinoma, LSA
bronchiolar-alveolar carconoma

a. species affected
b. origin
a. most common primary lung tumor in dogs & cats

b. arises from non-ciliated bronchiolar (Clara) &/or Type II cells in peripheral areas (not near hilus)
bronchogenic carcinoma

a. origin
b. gross
a. arises from bronchial epithelium in central hilar location

b. firm, gray to white
examples of metastatic lung tumors
more common than primary lung tumors

mammary carcinoma, malignant melanoma, HSA, osteosarcoma, etc.

a. origin
b. species affected
c. gross appearance
a. serosal lining cells on pleural surfaces
b. occasionally calves, dogs, horses
c. multiple small firm nodules or villous projections of thickened serosal surfaces
hydrothorax: causes
transudate in thoracic cavity

heart failure, hypoproteinemia, ANTU toxicity, neoplasia
hemothorax: causes
trauma, clotting defects, DIC, neoplasia, pneumonia

usually acute & fatal
chylothorax: causes
neoplasia (LSA), CHF, idiopathic, rupture of lymphatics, trauma
pneumothorax: causes
neoplasia, pneumonia, trauma
pyothorax: causes
ruptured abscess, pneumonia, trauma (ex. bite wound)
chronic pleuritis: etiolgies
-penetrating wound : Nocardia (dogs), Actinomyces (dogs, horses) --> sulfur granules