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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What separates the upper from the lower respiratory system.
Pharynx
What are the three systems of the respiratory tract?
conducting
transitional
exchange
What is the conducting system of the respiratory tract composed of?
nasal cavity, sinuses, larynx, trachea and bronchi

ciliated epithelium and goblets cells seen here
What is the transitional system composed of?
bronchioles

clara cells, non-ciliated secretory cells and only a few cilated cells seen here
What is the exchange system composed of?
alveoli

epithelial type 1 (membranous) and epithelial type 2 (pnemonocytes) seen here
What are the two systems of the lungs and their functions?
pulmonary system - conducts deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart

bronchial system - carries oxygenated blood
What are the types of cells in nasal cavity?
pseudostratified and stratified cillated squamous epithelium
What portion of the respiratory tract is considered sterile?
distal portion
What are the functions of type one pneumocytes?
gas exchange
What are the functions of type two pneumocytes?
produce surfactant, reduce surface tension
What are two examples of normal flora that can be pathogenic?
mannheimia haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica
What are examples of non-specific defense mechanisms of the respiratory system?
mucous trapping
mucocilliary clearance
phagocytosis
air turbulence
What are examples of immune mediated defense?
antibody production
antibody-mediated phagocytosis
cell mediated immunity
What lung macrophages will be used with a hematogenous pathogen
pulmonary intravasular macrophage

seen in ruminants, horses, pigs and cats
What are the six causes of pneumonia that is by bacterial origin?
stress
dehydration
uremia
pulmonary edema
ammonia
immunosupression
What is a cause of epitaxis in horses?
Ethmoidal hematoma
exercise induced epitaxis
What disease can cause fibrosis rhinitis in cattle?
IBR

produces a diptheritic membrane
What bacteria causes atrophic rhinitis in pigs?
bordetella bronchiseptica and pasteurella multocida
What age of pigs are affected by inclusion body rhinitis? (IBR)
age 3-5 weeks

see cytomegaly and keratomegly with basophilic inclusion bodies
What are differential diagnoses for cat with nasal and ocular discharge?
feline herpesvirus1
feline calicivirus

both can lead to interstitial pneumonia
What are the variety of infections that cause of kennel cough?
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Canine adenovirus 2
Canine parainfluenzavirus 2
Mycoplasma spp
What is necrotizing laryngitis?
calf diptheria

secondary infection by fusobacterium necrophorum followed by trauma or viral infection such as IBR
What is the inflammation of the guttural pouch called? What is it called when air is trapped?
Eustachitis
Guttural pouch tympany
What bacteria causes strangles in horses?
streptococcus equi

infections involves bacteria in the Guttural pouch and lymph and lymph nodes
What fungi causes gutteral pouch mycosis?
aspergillus, fungi has a predalection for vessles and can cause CNS signs when near cranial nerves
What is COPD?
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

seen in horses and pones
"heaves" "broken wind" Asthma like syndrome"
What is exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage?
common condition in race horses

follows strenous exercise
epitaxis is present in only 1-10% of horses
frequency increase with age and severity of exercise

result of marked elevation in arterial and capillary pressures and hemorrhage occurs in the dorso-caudal portions of the caudal lung lobes
What bacteria causes necrotizing laryngitis in cattle? What can this lead to?
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Pneumonia
What is roaring caused by? What is the technical term?
Neuropathy of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (vagus), causing atrophy of dorsal cricoarytenoid muscle
Laryngeal hemiplegia
What are diseases similar to COPD in horses?
Feline asthma
Feline allergic bronchitis
What are the layers of the blood brain barrier?
endothelial cell
basement membrane of endothelial cell
basement membrane of type 1 pneumocyte
cytoplasm of type 1 pneumpcyte
What is the developmental cause of vena cava thrombosis in cattle?
grain overload or rumen acidosis

get liver abscess and damage to vena cava following bacteremia


seen in feedlot cattle
What is the gross appearance of a lung with pulmonary edema?
enlarged, wet, interstitial spaces filled with fluid
What are causes of pulmonary edema?
cardiogenic with increased hydrostatic pressure

non-cargiogenic edema/permeability

obstruction due to lymph drainage
Cardiogenic edema associated with what condition?
left sided heart failure
What is the accumulation of carbon in the lungs called?
Pulmonary anthracosis

see this in macrophages or interstitial space
What is incomplete expansion of the lungs? causes?
atelectasis

congential, acquired, compressiveDue to space occupying lesions like hydrothorax, hemothorax and pleuritis

Can be due to a pneumothorax

lung does not float
What is meconium?
A mixture of secretions from intestinal glands and amniotic fluid
(aspiration)

seen in bovine fetuses and causes patchy atelectasis
What is pulmonary emphysema?
permanent enlargement of air spaces of terminal bronchiole

results in destruction of the alveolar wall
What does emphysema do to gas exchange?
reduces gas exchange due to the reduction of surface area
What type pneumonia is caused by viruses and pneumotoxins?
interstitial pneumonia
What route does embolic pneumonia travel?
hematogenous route
What are the differential diagnosises of viral pneumonia in cattle?
IBR
parainfluenzavirus 3
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
What causes bovine enzootic pneumonia in cattle?
(chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia)
mycoplasma and chalymidophilia
What is shipping fever?
An acute respiratory disease that occurs in cattle several days or weeks after shipment

Cause by Mannheimia haemolytica

Most economically important respiratory disease of cattle in North America, particularly in feedlot cattle
What bacteria has similar signs like Mannheimia haemolytica?
Histophilus somni

see coagulation necrosis in paranchyma
What bacterial pneumonia can cause chronic fibrinous arthritis?
mycoplasma bovis

seen in feedlot cattle
What does Mycoplasma bovis cause in the lungs?
causes a nectrotizing bronchopneumonia

see caseous necrosis

see lesions in LN
What causes verminous bronchitis/pneumonia in cattle? sheep and goats? Equine?
Dictyocaulus vivparus
Dictyocaulus filaria
Dictyocaulus arnfieldi

the worms are usually confined to the caudal lung lobes
What are the signs of atypical interstitial pneumonia?
interstitial penumonia
hyaline membranes and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes
How do you distinguish the difference in the presentation of a viral vs bacterial pneumonia?
Viral- see enlarged lungs with rib impressions and interstitial pneumonia

Bacterial- see suppurative lesions
What are examples of atypical interstitial pneumonias?
bovine pulomary edema and emphysema (fog fever) - tryptophan present in pasture, metabolized in rumen to 3 methylindole and carried to lungs effects clara cells

extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) seen in dairy cows in winter, inhaling organic antigens

Milk allergy (type I hypersensitivity in cows sensitized to their own milk casein and lactalbumin

ingestion of moldy potatoes - pneumotoxicant
What are the three viral causes of pneumonia in sheep and one in goats?
Parainfluenza virus-3
Bovine resp syncytial virus
Maedi-visna -> lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia
CAE (goats)
What causes bacterial pneumonia in sheep?
Mannhemia hemolytica
Pasturella multocida
What viruses cause transient broncho-interstitial pneumonia in horses?
EHV-1, EHV-4, EVA (Eq. viral arteritis) and Equine Adenovirus esp in immune compromised horses
What are the signs of Equine Morbilivirus?
Multinucleated syncytial cells in endothelium of blood vessels

No inclusion bodies seen
What bacteria can cause interstitial pneumonia in foals with combined immune deficiency?
Pneumocystis carinii
What type of pneumonia does Rhodococcus equii cause?
Where does the bacteria survive?
Chronic suppurative -> pyogranulomatous pneumonia
Inside macrophages

R equi can infect people who are immunosuppressed

Enterocolitis with lymphanitis (from swallowed bacteria originating from lungs)
What are the viral causes of pneumonia in pigs?
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

swine influenza

postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

porcine respiratory coronavirus
What bacteria is common to see in pigs with PRRS & PMWS?
Pneumocystis carinii
What kind of pneumonia is caused by Mycoplasma in pigs? What is the name for how the lungs look?
Suppurative or cattarrhal bronchopneumonia
"Fish flesh"
What causes Glasser's disease and what kind of lesions does it cause?
Haemophilus parasuis
Fibrinous pleuritis and pneumonia
What causes porcine contagious pleuropneumonia? Describe the lesions. Where are they located?
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Hemorrhage, necrosis & thrombosis
Dorsal area of caudal lung
What does porcine contagious pleuropneumonia resemble in cattle? How is it different?
Shipping Fever
Lesions located in ventral lung
What are the most common infectious pneumonia in dogs?
canine distemper and kennel cough

see secondary bacterial pneumonia
What are the most common non infectious pneumonia in dogs?
uremia and paraquat (herbicide)
What are causes of granulomatous pneumonia in dogs?
Blastomycosis and Histoplasmosis
Do we see pneumonia in cats?
not usually

see upper respiratory infections

viruses that produce URI may induce pneumonia but unless complicated with secondary bacterial infectious they are usually do not pose a significant problem
What parasite can cause pulmonary abscesses in cats?
Aelurostronglyus abstrusus
Where do we seen pulmonary neoplasias?
in older animals due to metastasis
What causes chronic pleuritis with sulfur granules in cats?
Nocardia asteroides
What can cause fibrinosuppurative pleuropneumonia in rabbits?
What else can this bacteria cause?
Pasturella multocida
Pasturellosis, snuffles, abscesses
What is the term for infection of the air sacs in birds?
Air saculitis
What are the two main causes of granulomatous pneumonia in birds?
Aspergillus
Mycobacterium avium
What are 2 differential diagnosis for a SCID foal with interstitial pneumonia?
What stain(s) can be used to provide a definitive diagnosis?
Pneumocystis carinii or Equine adenovirus
GMS or PAS stain