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61 Cards in this Set

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Conducting portion of respiratory system?
1. Nasal cavity/mouth
2. Pharynx/larynx
3. Trachea
4. Bronchi
5. Bronchioles
Nasal cavity is separated into 2 chambers by?
Nasal septum
Nasal cavity communicates w/ nasopharynx via?
Choanae
What are the 3 histologic regions of the nasal cavity?
1. Vestibule (area just inside nares)
2. Nasal cavity proper
3. Olfactory region
What type of epithelium lines vestibule of nasal cavity?
Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
Conducting portion of respiratory system?
1. Nasal cavity/mouth
2. Pharynx/larynx
3. Trachea
4. Bronchi
5. Bronchioles
Nasal cavity is separated into 2 chambers by?
Nasal septum
Nasal cavity communicates w/ nasopharynx via?
Choanae
What are the 3 histologic regions of the nasal cavity?
1. Vestibule (area just inside nares)
2. Nasal cavity proper
3. Olfactory region
What type of epithelium lines vestibule of nasal cavity?
Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
Nasal cavity proper is lined w/ what type of epithelium?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells
What type of CT is found in the lamina propria of CT proper?
Loose CT
What structures are found in lamina propria of nasal cavity proper?
-Arterial plexuses, venous sinuses
-Seromucous glands
-Lymphoid cells
What type of lymphoid cells are present in lamina propria of nasal cavity proper? (3)
1. Lymph nodules (B cells mainly)
2. Mast cells
3. Plasma cells --> produce:
-IgA
-IgE
-IgG
Region in anterior part of nasal septum rich in arterial anastomoses & a site of frequent nosebleeds
Kiesselbach's area
Where is the oflactory region located in the nasal cavity?
Roof of nasal cavity-- including upper part of nasal septum & superior concha
Olfactory epithelium is composed of what type of cells?
1. Olfactory cells
2. Sustentacular cells
3. Basal cells
Why are cilia of olfactory cells nonmotile?
Lack dynein arms
What surrounds olfactory cells?
UNMYELINATED-- surrounded by "olfactory sheating cells" (glial cells)
What features do sustentacular cells of nasal cavity have?
1. Columnar w/ microvilli
2. Secretory granules w/ yellow pigment
3. Junctional complexes w/ oflactory cells & other sustentacular cells
What is the role of the sustentacular cells of nasal cavity?
Physical support, nourishment & electrical insulation for olfactory cells
What are the 2 types of basal cells present in the nasal cavity?
1. Horizontal (flat) --> replace globose basal cells
2. Globose --> produce olfactory or sustentacular cells
What type of CT does the lamina propria of the olfactory region?
Irregular collagenous CT bound to periosteum
Bowman's (olfactory) glands are found where?
Lamina propria of olfactory region
What type of glands are Bowman's glands?
Serous glands-- Produce:
-IgA
-Lactoferrin
-Lysozyme
-Odorant-binding protein
What type of epithelium is found in paranasal sinuses?
Respiratory epithelium
Paranasal sinuses have mucoperiosteal lining--- what does that mean?
No submucosa --> lamina propria connects direty to periosteum
Paranasal sinuses contain what type of glands in lamina propria?
Seromucous glands
Oropharynx is lined w/ what type of epithelium?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What type of epithelium lines the laryngopharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Lamina propria of pharynx fuses w/?
Epimysium of muscularis
Muscularis layer contains?
3 circular muscles & 3 longitudinal muscles
What is found in the lamina propria of the vocal folds of the larynx?
Vocalis muscle- skeletal muscle
Wall of trachea is composed of what layers?
1. Mucosa
2. Submucosa
3. Adventitia
What type of cells are found in epithelium of trachea? (6)
1. Goblet cells
2. Ciliated columnar cells
3. Basal cells
4. Brush cells
5. Serous cells
6. DNES cells
What separates the lamina propria from submucosa in trachea?
Elastic lamina
What is present in lamina propria of trachea? (4)
1. Elastic fibers
2. Type I collagen fibers
3. Lymphoid cells
4. Mucous & seromucus glands
Hyaline cartilage C-rings are found in what layer of trachea?
Adventitia
What DECREASES when transitioning from trachea --> bronchi? (4)
Trachea --> Bronchi -- DECREASE:
1. Cartilage
2. Glands
3. Goblet cells
4. Height of epithelial cells
What INCREASES when transitioning from trachea --> bronchi? (2)
Trachea --> Bronchi --INCREASE:
1. Smooth muscle
2. Elastic tissue
How do the Primary (main) bronchi differ from the trachea?
Diameter & wall thickness
How do the secondary (lobar) bronchi differ? (2)
1. C-rings replaced by irregular cartilage plates
2. Smooth muscle surrounds entire lumen
What are the 3 divisions of bronchi?
1. Primary = main bronchi
2. Secondary = lobar bronchi
3. Tertiary = segmental bronchi
Walls of bronchioles include only?
Epithelium & lamina propria
What type of epithelium is found in bronchioles?
Simple ciliated columnar with goblet cells
Lamina propria of bronchioles contains?
NO glands or cartilage
Helically arranged smooth muscle
Elastic fibers
Clara cells are found in?
Epithelium of Bronchioles & terminal bronchioles
What is the function of Clara cells? (3)
-Protect bronchiolar epithelium
-Degrade inhaled toxins
-Might secrete surfactant
The respiratory portion of the respiratory system consists of? (4)
1. Respiratory bronchioles
2. Alveolar ducts
3. Alveolar sacs
4. Alveoli
the smallest bronchioles not involved in gas exchange are?
Terminal bronchioles
What is the structural & functional unit of the respiratory system?
Alveolus
Opening of alveolus is controlled by?
Single smooth muscle cell
What separates alveoli from each other?
Interalveolar septa formed of
-CT
-Reticular fibers
-Capillary bed
Alveoli communicate w/ other alveolar vili via?
Alveolar pores
Type I pneumocytes are what cell type?
Simple squamous cell of alveolar wall
Type I pneumonocytes are connected by?
Occluding junctions
What cell type of the lungs contains lamellar bodies?
Type II pneumocytes
Lamellar bodies of type II pneumocytes contain?
Surfactant --> decrease surface tension & prevent collapse
Alveolar macrophages (dust cells) are derived from?
Blood-borne monocytes
Alveolar macrophages enter alveolar lumen by?
Migrating between type I pneumocytes
Blood-gas barrier contains? (4)
1. Surfactant
2. Type I pneumocytes
3. Fused basal laminae
4. Endothelial cells of continous capillaries