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101 Cards in this Set

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Asphyxia definition?
anything that decreases oxygen in the blood
Asphyxia causes?
cardiopulmonary diseases, obstruction, carbon monoxide poisoning, & narcotic overdose
Asphyxia Manifestations?
anxiety, agitation, confusion, altered resp rate, decreased breath sounds, and central and/or peripheral cyanosis (cherry-red mucous membranes in late stage carbon monoxide poisoning)
Asphyxia Test Results?
ABG: decreased PaO2 (<60) & increased PaCO2 (>50)
Pulse Ox: decreased Hgb saturation w/ oxygen
Asphyxia Treatments
Bronchoscopy, O2 therapy or mechanical ventilation, narcotic antagonist (Narcan)
Asphyxia Interventions
Assess cardiac & resp status; position upright (if tolerated); suction prn; encourage deep breathing
Atelectasis definition?
Collapse of alveoli
Atelectasis Manifestations?
diminished breath sounds and dyspnea. Severe cases: anxiety, cyanosis, diaphoresis, severe dyspnea, substernal/intercostal retractions, and tachycardia
Atelectasis Test Results?
CXR show horizontal lines, in the lower lung zones, with segmental/lobar collapse
Atelectasis Treatments?
**Prevention Is Important** bronchoscopy, chest physiotherapy, bronchodilators (proventil), mucolytic inhalation therapy (mucomyst)
Atelectasis Interventions?
turn, cough, deep breathe q1-2h; hold pillow over incision;
reposition often; help ambulate; adm adequate analgesics;
Atelectasis Interventions Cont?
incentive spirometer q1-2h; humidify air; encourage adequate fluid intake; postural drainage/chest percussion; assess breath sounds/ventilatory status
Legionnaire's Disease definition?
acute bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophilia. Inflammation that begins in the bronchioles
Legionnaire Manifestations?
cough, very high fever, generalized weakness, malaise, recurrent chills
Legionnaire origin?
American Legion convention in Philly July 1976 (182 infected/29 died)
Legionnaire Test Results?
CXR, direct immunofluorescence, indirect fluorescent serum antibody test, convalescent serum sample
Legionnaire Treatments?
antibiotics, antipyretics, dialysys (if renal failure occurs)
Legionnaire Interventions?
Resp status, VS, pulse ox, ABGs, s/sx of shock, replace fluid/electrolyte prn, resp support prn
Lung Cancer?
pulmonary malignancy
small cell cancer (oat cell)
non-small cell (squamous, adenocarcinoma, & large cell carcinoma)
Lung Cancer Causes?
inhalation of carcenogenic agents (eg: smoking)
Lung Cancer Manifestations?
cough, dyspnea, purulent or blood streaked sputum, chest pain, wt loss, anorexia, wheexing, & fatigue
Lung Cancer Test Results?
CXR: lesions/mass; broncoscopy, lung scan, biopsy, sputum
Lung Cancer Treatments?
radiation, surgery, chemo, diuretics
Lung Cancer Interventions?
pain control (PRIORITY!!), suction, T C DB, and monitor bleeding, infection, & F&E balance
Pneumonia definition?
acute inflammation of lungs;
community or hospital acquired (bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal)
Pneumonia Causes?
E. coli, H. influenza, Staph aureas, Strep pneumoniae, Psudomonas, aspiration of substance, chemical irritants
Pneumonia Manifestations?
increases alveolar fluid, infection, ventilation decreases as secretions thicken
Pneumonia Manifestations Cont?
chills, fever, crackles, rhonchi, pleural rub/pain, malaise, restless, confused, SOB, tachypnea, accessory muscles used, sputum (rusty, green, and/or bloody)
Pneumonia Test Results?
ABG (hypoxemia, respacidosis), CXR, CBC (elevated WBC-bacterial), ESR (elevated due to inflammation), sputum specimen (id organism)
Pneumonia Implementation?
chest physiotherapy, high calorie/protein diet, force fluids, intubation or ventialtion, antibiotics, antipyretics, bronchodilators (alupent, proventil)
Pneumonia Pt Education?
s/sx of resp infection & when to seek medical help; avoid exposure to infectious people; increase fluid intake to 3000/mL (unless contraindicted)
Pleural Effusion definition?
collection of fluid in pleural space (any condition intering w/ secretion or drainage of this fluid)
Pleural Effusion Manifestation?
pleuritic pain (sharp), DOE, decreased breath sounds, dry non-productive cough, tachycardia, elevated temp
Pleural Effusion Test Results
CXR shows effusion & mediastinal shift away from fluid
Pleural Effusion Implemetation?
id/tx underlying cause, monitor breath sounds, high Fowler's, T C DB, prepare for thoracentesis,pleurectomy, or pleurodesis
Pleurectomy definition?
surgical stripping of parietal pleura from visceral pleura (causes inflammatory reaction that promotes adhesion formation between them)
Pleurodesis definition?
installing sclerosing substance into pleural space via thorocotomy tube (causes tissues to fuse)
Empyema definition?
accumulation of pus w/in pleural cavity causing thick, opaque, foul-smelling fluid.
Empyema Causes?
pulmonary infection and/or lung abscess (common causes)
Empyema Treatment?
emptying empyema cavity; reexpanding lung; controlling infection
Empyema Manifestations?
(recent illness or trauma), chest pain, decreased chest wall movement (effected side), cough, dyspnea, anorexia, wt loss, malaise, pleural exudate (CXR), elevated temp, chills, nite sweats
Empyema Implementation?
monitor breath sounds, semi or high Fowler's, T C DB, antibiotics, splint chest prn, chest tube, surgery
Pleurisy definition?
inflammation of the visceral and/or parietal membranes
Pleurisy Manifestations?
knife-like pain aggravated w/ DB & C (no pain holding breath), dyspnea, pleural rub, apprehension
Pleurisy Causes?
pulmonary infarction, pneumonia, URI, TB, CA
Pleurisy Implementations?
id/tx cause, monitor lung sounds, adm analgesics/nerve blocks, hot/cold applications as Rx, T C DB, lie on affected side to splint chest, adm NSAID (Indocin)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning definition?
binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin, displacing oxygen from RBCs
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Causes?
inhalation of the colorless, odorless, tasteless gas.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Implementations?
**Prevention is Priority**
remove from exposure; adm oxygen; assess for BLS; monitor VS; monitor carbon monoxide levels
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Manifestations?
impaired visual acuity, flushing, N/V, impaired dexterity, dizziness, syncope, tachypnea, tachycardia, coma, death
Histoplasmosis definition?
pulomonary fungal infection caused by inhalation of Histoplasma capsulatum spores (found in soil contaminated by bird poop)
Histoplamosis Manifestations?
dyspnea, chills, fever, chest pain, pulmonary infiltrates (CXR), elevated WBC, positive skin and agglutination tests, splenomegaly &/or hepatomegaly
Histoplamosis Implementations?
adm oxygen, antiemetics, antihistamines, antipyretics, corticosteroids, & fungicidal meds as Rx; monitor breath sounds, T C DB, VS, monitor nephrotoxicity from fungal meds
Histoplasmosis Pt Education?
avoid infected areas, wear masks, hose down areas before sweeping barns or chicken coups.
Sarcoidosis definition?
chronic disorder characterized by epitheloid cell tubercles in lungs, spleen, liver, skin, lymph glands & eyes.
Sarcoidosis Cause?
UNKNOWN
Sarcoidosis Manifestations?
nite sweats, fever, wt loss, cough, dyspnea, skin nodules, polyarthritis, (higher in blacks & young adults)
Sarcoidosis Test Results?
high titler of Epstein-Barr virus, Kviem test (causes local nodular lesion in about 1 month
Sarcoidosis Implementations?
adm corticosteroids, monitor temp, increase fluid intake, provide frequent rest periods, encourage small nutritious meals
Occupational Lung Disease (silicosis, asbestosis, black lung, etc)
group of abnormal lung conditions caused by inhalation of dusts, fumes, gases, or vapors in work environment.
Pleurisy Implementations?
id/tx cause, monitor lung sounds, adm analgesics/nerve blocks, hot/cold applications as Rx, T C DB, lie on affected side to splint chest, adm NSAID (Indocin)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning definition?
binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin, displacing oxygen from RBCs
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Causes?
inhalation of the colorless, odorless, tasteless gas.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Implementations?
**Prevention is Priority**
remove from exposure; adm oxygen; assess for BLS; monitor VS; monitor carbon monoxide levels
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Manifestations?
impaired visual acuity, flushing, N/V, impaired dexterity, dizziness, syncope, tachypnea, tachycardia, coma, death
Histoplasmosis definition?
pulomonary fungal infection caused by inhalation of Histoplasma capsulatum spores (found in soil contaminated by bird poop)
Histoplamosis Manifestations?
dyspnea, chills, fever, chest pain, pulmonary infiltrates (CXR), elevated WBC, positive skin and agglutination tests, splenomegaly &/or hepatomegaly
Histoplamosis Implementations?
adm oxygen, antiemetics, antihistamines, antipyretics, corticosteroids, & fungicidal meds as Rx; monitor breath sounds, T C DB, VS, monitor nephrotoxicity from fungal meds
Histoplasmosis Pt Education?
avoid infected areas, wear masks, hose down areas before sweeping barns or chicken coups.
Sarcoidosis definition?
chronic disorder characterized by epitheloid cell tubercles in lungs, spleen, liver, skin, lymph glands & eyes.
Sarcoidosis Cause?
UNKNOWN
Sarcoidosis Manifestations?
nite sweats, fever, wt loss, cough, dyspnea, skin nodules, polyarthritis, (higher in blacks & young adults)
Sarcoidosis Test Results?
high titler of Epstein-Barr virus, Kviem test (causes local nodular lesion in about 1 month
Sarcoidosis Implementations?
adm corticosteroids, monitor temp, increase fluid intake, provide frequent rest periods, encourage small nutritious meals
Occupational Lung Disease (silicosis, asbestosis, black lung, etc)
group of abnormal lung conditions caused by inhalation of dusts, fumes, gases, or vapors in work environment.
Silicosis Assessment?
freq resp infections, blood-streaked sputum, dry cough, DOE (usually 1st symptom), chest pain
Silicosis Test Results?
CXR: nodular lesions of lungs ground glass appearance
Silicosis Implementation?
adm antitussive, antibiotics, TB meds, & oxygen as Rx; eliminate toxic substances, encourage C DB, chest physiotherapy & increase fluids (3000mL/d)
Tuberculosis definition?
highly communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (affects mainly pulmonary system)
Tuberculosis?
**bacteria is heat & UV sensitive
**can affect brain, intestines, peritonium, kidneys, joints, & liver
Tuberculosis Manifestations?
pneumonitis, granulomas in lung tissue, insidious onset, MDR-TB is result of noncompliance
Tuberculosis Treatments?
prevention
control symptoms
prevent progression (Military TB)
Tuberculosis Risk Factors?
alcoholism, IV drug use, malnutrition (kids<5), infection, ederly, poor, homeless, minority groups, refugees
Tuberculosis Risk Factors Cont?
long-term & mental health facilities, prisons, freq contract w/ untreated or undiagnosed people, HIV (TB #1 COD) or immunosuppressed
Bovine TB Risks?
Risk of developing if drinking unpateurized milk if cow is infected
Tuberculosis Transmission?
airborne by droplet

**early id, dx, & tx important**
Tuberculosis Test Results?
TB skin test or CXR
Tuberculosis Disease Progression?
droplet in lungs forms tubercle lesion, which body encapsulates-forming scar. If not encapsulated-TB can travel to lymph system/nodes
Tuberculosis Disease Progression Cont?
causes granulomatous inflammation in lymph. Primary lesions form, can be doemant-but secondary infection occurs when reactivated
Tuberculosis Disease Manifestations Cont?
If active-causes necrosis & cavitation in lesions. Leads to rupture & spread of necrotic tissue & damage to body parts
Tuberculosis Assessment?
exposure; recent foreign travel; hx of flu, pneumonia, febrile illness, cough, foul- smelling sputum; previous TB tests results
Tuberculosis Symptoms?
aymptomatic, fatigue, lethary, anorexia, wt loss, fever, chills, nite sweats, persistant cough, blood- streaked sputum, chest tightness or pain
Tuberculosis Assessment Cont?
chest assessment
sputum cultures
Mantoux test
**monitor BUN & creatinine labs
Tuberculosis Meds
**Given for 6-12 mos**
Isoniazid
Rifampin
Rifabutin
**Give medc w/ VitB-prevents neuropathy
Tuberculosis Meds Cont
INH given for 6-12 mos for people who live w/ infected or exposed
Resp Acidosis Manifestations?
headache, dyspnea, tremors, tachycardia, HTN, vasodilation
Resp Acidosis Test Results?
PaCO2 > 45
pH < 7.35
Resp Acidosis Interventions?
id & tx cause, removed airway obstructions, mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, IV bronchodilators, IV sodium bicarbonate
Resp Alkalosis Manifestations?
deep-rapid-high rate breathing,light headedness,dizziness, peripheral paresthesia, tingling, muscle weakness, tetany, arrhythmias.
Resp Alkalosis Test Results?
PaCO2 < 35
pH > 7.45
Resp Alkalosis Interventions?
id & tx cause, paper bag breathing, sedatives