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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pharyngitis
sore throat; non specific inflammatory response to toxins or pathogens and usually is a symptom of a viral infection
Tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils; streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcal pharyngitis (Strep throat)
URT
bacteria: streptococcus pyogenes
symptoms: severe and sudden sore throat, fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes and tonsils, beefy red appearance to pharyngeal tissues
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: PCN
prevention: good hand hygiene
Scarlet fever
URT
complication of strep throat
bacteria: streptococcus pyogenes
symptoms: pink-red rash on the neck, chest and soft-skin areas of arms,strawberry-like inflamed tongue
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: PCN or clarithromycin
prevention: good hygiene
Rheumatic fever
serious complication of strep throat; fever and joint pain, permanent scarring and distortion of heart valves (rheumatic heart disease)
Acute glomerulonephritis
complication of strep throat; rare inflammatory response to specific types of M proteins; antigen-antibody complexes accumulate in the glomerulus and can cause progressive, irreversible renal damage in adults
Diphtheria
URT
bacteria: corynebacterium diphtheriae (aerobic, club-shaped, gram+ rod)
symptoms: sore throat and low grade fever
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatments: PCN, erythromycin
prevention: DTaP vaccine
*produces pseudomembrane that can build up on tonsils or pharynx
Epiglottitis
URT
bacteria: haemophilus influenzae or streptococcus pneumonia symptoms: severe throat pain, fever and muffled voice, stridor (wheezing sound)
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: intravenous antibiotics
prevention: Hib vaccine
Acute sinusitis
URT
bacteria:various indigenous microbiota
symptoms:pain, tenderness, swelling of sinuses, yellow or green pus discharge from nose, fever, chills
treatment: nasal sprays, antibiotics
prevention: minimizing contact with individuals with colds
Chronic sinusitis
acute sinusitis can develop into a chronic condition; symptoms are more subtle and pain occurs less often
Otitis externa
URT
bacteria: streptococcus, staphylococcus, pseudomonas
symptoms: itching, ear pain
transmission: contaminated water
treatment: antibiotic ear drops
*swimmer's ear
Acute otitis media
URT
bacteria: s. pneumoniae, h. influenzae
symptoms: ear pain, red bulging eardrum
transmission: airborne contact
treatment: wait and see, antibiotics
prevention: limiting time in childcare
Chronic otitis media
URT
long-term infection, inflammation and damage to the middle ear; global cause of hearing impairment and effects on language, auditory and cognitive development
biofilm
antibiotic-resistant colonizations of bacteria that attach to surfaces and form a slime-life defensive barrier
Acute bacterial meningitis
URT
bacteria: neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae type b
symptoms: fever, stiff neck, sever headache, vomiting and nausea, sensitivity to light
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: antibiotics
prevention: vaccination
meningococcal meningitis
bacteria: neisseria meningitidis
aerobic, gram-, diplococcus
*consists of influenza-like infection called meningococcal pharyngitis
pneumococcal meningitis
bacteria: streptococcus pneumoniae
haemophilus meningitis
bacteria: haemophilus influenzae Type b
meningococcemia
organism invades into the non ciliated epithelium and spread to the blood casing rapid multiplication of the bacterial cells
Pertussis (Whooping cough)
LRT
bacteria: bordetella pertussis (aerobic, gram- rod)
symptoms: malaise, low-grade fever, severe cough
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: erythromycin
prevention: DTaP, Tdap vaccine
1st stage= catarrhal stage
2nd stage= paroxysmal stage
paroxysms= rapid-fire staccato coughs all in one exhalation
Tuberculosis
LRT
bacteria: mycobacterium tuberculosis
symptoms (Active TB) cough, weight loss, fatigue, fever, night sweats, chills, breathing pain
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: antibiotics
prevention: BCG vaccine
acid-fast
organism that resists decolorization in gram staining; acid-resistant (ex: mycobacterium tuberculosis)
miliary tuberculosis
active tubercles spread throughout the body (the tiny lesions resemble millet seeds in bird food)
infectious bronchitis
LRT
bactera: mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydophila pneumoniae, streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae
symptoms: runny nose, sore throat, chills, general malaise, slight fever, dry cough
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: antibiotics
prevention: flu vaccine, good hygiene
Pneumococcal pneumonia
LRT
bacteria: streptococcus pneumoniae
symptoms: high fever, sharp chest pains, difficulty breathing, rust-colored sputum
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: PCN, cefotaxime
prevention: vaccine, hand hygiene
lobar pneumonia
involvement of an entire lung
double pneumonia
both left and right lungs involved
bronchopneumonia
scattered patches of infection in the respiratory passages
Other "typical" pneumonias
LRT
bacteria: H. influenzae, S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae
symptoms: chills, high fever, sweating, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough with thick, greenish or yellow sputum
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: antibiotics
prevention: good hand hygiene
"Atypical" pneumonia
LRT
bacteria: mycoplasma pneumoniae, legionella pneumophila
symptoms: headache, fever, dry cough
transmission: respiratory droplets via water systems, whirlpool spas, air conditions systems
treatment: antibiotics
prevention: extreme cleaning and disinfecting of water systems
insidious
referring to a disease with few or no specific symptoms
myalgia
pain in the muscles or muscle groups
Q fever
LRT
bacteria: coxiella burnetii
symptoms: headache, fever, dry cough
transmission: dust particles, contact with infected animals
treatment: doxycycline
prevention: vaccine for high-risk occupations
psittacosis
LRT
bacteria: chlamydophila psittaci
symptoms: headache, fever, dry cough
transmission: contact with infected psittacine birds
treatment: doxycycline
prevention: keep susceptible birds away from the infecting agent
chlamydial pneumonia
LRT
bacteria: chlamydophila pneumoniae
symptoms: headache, fever, dry cough
transmission: respiratory droplets
treatment: doxycycline, erythromycin
prevention: good hygiene