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27 Cards in this Set

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Upper Airway
Consists of the nose, sinuses, turbinates, pharynx, and larynx.
The lower airway
consists of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and alveoli
Accessory structures include the diaphragm, rib cage, sternum, spine, muscles, and blood vessels.
to exchange oxygen and CO2 between the atmospheric air and the blood and between the blood and the cells.
is the actual movement of air in and out of the respiratory tract. Air must reach the alveoli for gas exchange
this process requires a patent airway and intact and functioning respiratory muscles. Pressure gradients between atmospheric air and the alveoli enable ventilation. Air flows from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
is the exchange of 02 and Co2 through the alveolar-capillary membrane. Concentration gradients determine the direction of diffusion.
Flow of blood in the pulmonary circulation., ie. two methods are bronchial and pulmonary circulation.
Delivery of atmospheric air to the separate gas exchange units in the lungs.
Breur reflex
Stretch receptors located in the alveoli are activated during inspiration, so that inspiration is inhibited and lungs are not overdistended.
Exercise stimulates breathing. Movement activates proprioceprs located in the muscles and joints and increases ventilation.
These receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies respond to changes in arterial blood pressure. elevated arterial BP causes a reflex hypoventilation; lowered BP causes a reflex hyperventilation.
respiratory acidosis
Kidneys retain more HCO3 to raise the ph
respiratory alkalosis
kidneys excrete more HCO3 to lower ph
lungs blow off CO2 to raise PH
Metabolic alkalosis
lungs retain co2 to lower ph
Decreased oxygen in inspired air
decreased oxygen in the blood
increased carbon dioxide in the blood
Decreased carbon dioxide in the blood
exaggerated curvature of the thoracic spine; congenital anomaly or associated with injuries and osteoporosis.
Barrel chest
Anteroposterior diameter increased to equal the transverse diameter; chest is rounded; ribs are horizontal; sternum is pulled forward; associated with emphysema and aging
Funnel chest
also known as pectus excavatum;, the sternum is depressed from the second intercostal space- more pronounced with inspiration; a congenital anomaly
Pigeon Chest
Also known as pectus carinatum; the sternum abnormally protrudes; the ribs are sloped backward; a congenital anomaly.
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
high pitch, little intensity, decreased duration
heard during percussion of a solid area, such as a mass or pleural effusion
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
Medium pitch, medium intensity, medium duration
heard when no air or fluid is in the lung (e.g., atelectasis, lobar pneumonia)
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
high pitch, loud intensity, long duration
normal sounds heard over stomach and bowel; abnormal sounds heard over lungs such as in a pneumothorax
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
low pitch, loud intensity, long duration
normal lung sounds
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
lower pitch, very loud, longer duration
abnormal sounds that occur when free air exists in the thoracic cavity (e.g., emphysema, pneumothorax)