• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Upper Airway
Consists of the nose, sinuses, turbinates, pharynx, and larynx.
The lower airway
consists of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and alveoli
Accessory structures include the diaphragm, rib cage, sternum, spine, muscles, and blood vessels.
Respiration
to exchange oxygen and CO2 between the atmospheric air and the blood and between the blood and the cells.
Ventilation
is the actual movement of air in and out of the respiratory tract. Air must reach the alveoli for gas exchange
this process requires a patent airway and intact and functioning respiratory muscles. Pressure gradients between atmospheric air and the alveoli enable ventilation. Air flows from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
Diffusion
is the exchange of 02 and Co2 through the alveolar-capillary membrane. Concentration gradients determine the direction of diffusion.
Perfusion
Flow of blood in the pulmonary circulation., ie. two methods are bronchial and pulmonary circulation.
Distribution
Delivery of atmospheric air to the separate gas exchange units in the lungs.
Hering-
Breur reflex
Stretch receptors located in the alveoli are activated during inspiration, so that inspiration is inhibited and lungs are not overdistended.
proprioceptors
Exercise stimulates breathing. Movement activates proprioceprs located in the muscles and joints and increases ventilation.
Baroreceptors
These receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies respond to changes in arterial blood pressure. elevated arterial BP causes a reflex hypoventilation; lowered BP causes a reflex hyperventilation.
respiratory acidosis
Kidneys retain more HCO3 to raise the ph
respiratory alkalosis
kidneys excrete more HCO3 to lower ph
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
lungs blow off CO2 to raise PH
Metabolic alkalosis
lungs retain co2 to lower ph
hypoxia
Decreased oxygen in inspired air
hypoxemai
decreased oxygen in the blood
Hypercapnia
increased carbon dioxide in the blood
Hypocapnia
Decreased carbon dioxide in the blood
kyphosis
exaggerated curvature of the thoracic spine; congenital anomaly or associated with injuries and osteoporosis.
Barrel chest
Anteroposterior diameter increased to equal the transverse diameter; chest is rounded; ribs are horizontal; sternum is pulled forward; associated with emphysema and aging
Funnel chest
also known as pectus excavatum;, the sternum is depressed from the second intercostal space- more pronounced with inspiration; a congenital anomaly
Pigeon Chest
Also known as pectus carinatum; the sternum abnormally protrudes; the ribs are sloped backward; a congenital anomaly.
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
Flat
high pitch, little intensity, decreased duration
heard during percussion of a solid area, such as a mass or pleural effusion
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
Dull
Medium pitch, medium intensity, medium duration
heard when no air or fluid is in the lung (e.g., atelectasis, lobar pneumonia)
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
tympanic
high pitch, loud intensity, long duration
normal sounds heard over stomach and bowel; abnormal sounds heard over lungs such as in a pneumothorax
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
Resonant
low pitch, loud intensity, long duration
normal lung sounds
Sounds heard with Chest Wall Percussion
Hyperresonant
lower pitch, very loud, longer duration
abnormal sounds that occur when free air exists in the thoracic cavity (e.g., emphysema, pneumothorax)