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25 Cards in this Set

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spontaneous pneumothorax
often caused by trauma, but can be secondary to TB, cancer, etc

occur often in young, slender, tall men

sx: pain and difficulty breathing

CXR: radiolucency [dark area]
(if small, can be in a narrow area btwn chest wall and partially collapsed lung)
two main morphologic forms of emphysema
panacinar: a-1 antitrypsin def

centriacinar: (enlargement of resp bronchiole) tobacco and coal dust inhalation
compensatory and paraseptal emphasema
associated with scarring
usually clinically silent
paraseptal can lead to spontaneous pneumothorax in young pts [adjacent to pleura]
most common organisms isolated from anaerobic lung abscesses
Bacteroides, fusobacterium, peptococcus [all are oral flora]
decrease in Hgb concentration causes proportional decrease in _____
O2 carrying capacity of the blood [so low arterial O2 content]

O2 sat and arterial PO2 are not affected by Hgb
helium dilution technique is used to measure
FRC and RV

(all other volumes are measured with spirometry)
_____ can be depleted by isoniazid use
pyridoxine (vit B6)

sx: convulsions and fasciculations
mucolytic used for CF
N-acetylcystine [mucomyst]

splits disulfide links btwn mucoproteins (decreases viscosity)
TLC
=FRC + IC
appearance of emphysema
gross: greatly dilated alveoli, destruction of structural support to lymphatic vessels [heavy pigment deposition: ANTHRACOTIC]

histo: enlarged round airspaces w/ broken septae sticking into the alveoli
methemoglobinemia
iron becomes ferric (3+) instead of normal ferrous (2+)
can't bind O2 properly

leads to low O2 content

[content has to do with Hgb!!]
consequences of pulmonary HTN
medial hypertrophy, aterial fibrosis, marked narrowing of arterial lumen
predisposes to arterial thrombosis
tufts of endothelial proliferations are also prominent
positive airway pressure


negative " "
any volume above FRC (want to blow air out)


any volume below FRC
esophageal atresia
posterior deviation of the tracheoesophageal septum

can cause secondary aspiration pneumonia
resp distress in lobar s. pneumo pneumonia is due to _____
V/Q abnormalities

involved lobes have dilated vessels
alveolar fluid accumulation prevents normal ventilation
in which region of the thorax is the thoracic duct found?
posterior and superior mediastinum
normal blood gas ranges for neonates
arterial pH: 7.11 - 7.36

PO2: 8-24

pCO2: 27-40
respiratory quotient
ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed

RQ carbs: 1.0
RQ fat: 0.76
RQ protein: 0.80

*so feeding increased fat, reduced carbs, will reduce amt of carbs produced.

can be used in Tx of hypercapnia and resp failure
exposure of an ABG to room air causes
elevated PO2, decreased PCO2, elevated pH (due to decreased PCO2)
Reid index
ratio of mucus gland depth to total thickness of bronchial walls

increased in chronic bronchitis
form of lung cancer associated with scarring
adenocarcinoma

(arises peripherally, ass'd with coin lesions)
associate squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with ______
hypercalcemia, strong association to smoking
Pickwickian syndrome
morbidly obese individuals

pressure from a fatty neck causes intermittent airway obstruction

=hypoventilation of peripheral origin
causes of hypoventilation of central origin
morphine or barbiturates
4 most frequent causes of ARDS
trauma
sepsis
shock
gastric aspiration

**formation of hyaline membranes w/in alveolar cavities