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32 Cards in this Set

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Running Nose, sneezing, nasal congestion, and mild sore throat
Dx. Common Cold

Caused by Adenovirus
Cold with Eosinophils in the Blood
Allergic Rhinitis
Bacterial infections that are superimposed on common colds are caused by?
Streptcocci, staph or h. influenza
Symptoms: Harsh inspiratory cough and stridor?
Acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)

an inflammation of the larynx, trachea and epiglottis - life threatening in infants.

Typically viral cause.
Most common tumors of the nose and nasal sinuses?
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma - EBV related, common in SE Asia and E. Africa

Squamous Cell Carcinoma - most frequently occuring

Adenocarcinoma - 5% of malignant nasal carcinoma

Tumors of the Larynx?
Singer's Nodule - usually localized to true vocal crods

Laryngeal papilloma - benign

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

a. Glottic carcinoma
b. Supraglottic and subglottic carcinoma
Benign laryngeal polyp, frequently associated with heavy cigarette smoking?
Singer's Nodule.
Usually localizes to the true vocal cords
Benign neoplasm of true vocal cords that in adults occurs singly and can undergo malignant neoplasm?
Laryngeal papilloma
In children, often presents as multiple lesions, caused by HPV. Benign but recurring on resection.
Most common malignant tumor of the larynx
Squamous cell carcinoma
Often seen in men over 40, associated with smoking and alcoholism.
Most common of the laryngeal carcinomas?
Glottic carcinoma.

Arises in true vocal cords and has best prognosis
Supraglottic and subglottic are less common and have a worse prognosis
Proportional reduction in FEV1 and FVC leads to normal FEV1/FVC
Restrictive lung diseases - kyphoscoliosis, intestial or infiltrative parenchymal disease
Types of Asthma
Extrinsic (immune) - mediated by Type I hypersensitivity reaction

Intrinsic (nonimmune) - associated with chronic bronchitis, exercise and cold induced asthma.
COPD categories
Pulmonary emphysema
Bronchial asthma - pathologic findings
Bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy

Hyperplasia of submucosal glands and goblet cells

Airways plugged with viscid mucus - Curschmann spirals, eosinophils, Charcot-Leyden crystals

* Etiology - increased sensitivity of air passages to stimuli
Pulmonary emphysema - pathological findings
Abnormal dilation of air spaces with destruction of alveolar walls

Reduced lung elasticity
Bronchiectasis - pathologic findings
Abnormally dilated bronchi filled with mucus and neutrophils

Inflammation and necrosis of bronchial walls and alveolar fibrosis
Symptoms - dyspnea and wheezing expiration
Bronchial asthma
Complications of Bronchial Asthma
Superimposed infection

Chronic Bronchitis

Pulmonary emphysema

Bouts of Status Asthmaticus
Definition: Productive cough lasting at leasdt 3 consequetive months over the past 2 years
Chronic bronchitis
Chronic Bronchitis
Linked to cigarette smoking, and associated with air pollution, infection and genetics

Hypersecretion of mucus due to hyperplasia of mucus secreting submucosal glands

May lead to Cor Pulmonale
Dilation of airspace with destruction of the alveolar walls and lack of elastic recoil

Strong association with cigarette smoking.
Increased anterior posterior diameter of the chest

Increased total vital capacity



Respiratory Acidosis
Emphysema - clinical characteristics
Types of Emphysema
1. Centrolobular
2. Panacinar
3. Paraseptal
4. Irregular
Panacinar emphysema
Dilation of the entire acinus - alveolim alveolar ducts, respiratory and terminal bronchioles

Uniform distribution

Loss of elasticity, and sometimes genetically determined by deficiency in Alpha1-AntiTrypsin
Emphysema is often complicated or coexistant with:
Chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema complications
Coexistance Chronic Bronchitis

Intestitial emphysema

Rupture of a surface bleb to create a pneumotrhorax
Causes of Emphysema
Elastase released from neutrophils an macrophages

Loss of A1-AntiTrypsin that would neutralize elastases
Neutralizes elastase and preserves lung integrity

PiZ allele - structural alteration that interfers with hepatic secretion.

PiZZ homozygous - greatly decreased activity of A1-antiTrypsin, paraacinar emphysema and hepatic cirrhosis
Symptoms: Copious purulent sputum, hemoptysis and recurrent pulmonary infection that may lead to lung abscess
Permanent abnormal bronchial dilation caused by chronic infection, with inflammation and necrosis of the bronchial wall.
Conditions presupposing to Bronchiectasis
Bronchial obstruction (often tumor)

Chronic sinusitis with post nasal drip
Kartagener's syndrome
Sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus

Sometimes hearing loss and male sterility

Caused by defect in motility of cilia in respiratory, auditory and sperm.