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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Glucose catabolism
Degradation of glusose

Two steps: glycolysis and cellular respiration
-Breaks down glucose into:

2 molecules of pyruvate
2 molecules of ATP
2 molecules of NADH
Glycolysis during anaerobic conditions

-NAD+ has to be recycled when there is no O2. Do this by reducing pyruvate into ethanol or lactic acid
Cellular Respiration
Yields 36-38 ATP (vs. 2 ATP through glycolysis)

-Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons, so it is an aerobic process.

There are three stages:
1. Pyruvate decarboxylation
2. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle)
3. Electron Transport Chain
Pyruvate decarboxylation
Pyruvate is transported to the mitochondria, where it is decarboxylated
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
-For each molecule of glucose, you get two pyruvates, so:

2 ATP are generated
Electron Transport Chain
Completed inside the inner mitochondrial membrane

-ATP is produced when high-energy potential electrons are transferred from NADH to FADH2 to oxygen by a series of carrier molecules.
Total Energy Production:
-Substrate Level Phosphorylation = 4 ATP

-oxidative Phosphorylation = 32 ATP

TOTAL - 36
Alternate Energy Sources
-When glucose is low, the body will use other carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, in that order.

-It converts it to glucose or glucose intermediates, then degrade them.
Disaccharides are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides, which can be converted to glucose
-They are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerol and can be carried by the blood to other tissues.

Fats yield the greatest number of ATP per gram
-Amino acids undergo a transamination reaction
Respiratory Path
Nose --> pharynx(lungs) --> trachea --> bronchi --> bronchioles -->alveoli

-Gas exchange between lungs and circulatory system takes place across the alveol, air-filled sacs.
Control of ventilation (exhalation and inhalation)
-Regulated by medulla
pulmonary capillaries
-minute blood vessels that surround the alveoli.

-Gas exchange occurs by diffusion across these walls and those of the alveoli

-Oxygen diffuses from alveolar air into blood

-CO2 diffuses from blood into lungs to be exhaled