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66 Cards in this Set

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Does blood clotting act in a positive or negative feedback?
positive
What percentage of cellular components and plasma respectively make up blood?
Cellular components make up 45% while plasma makes up the other 55%
What are some components of blood plasma?
ions, H2O, hormones, O2, Co2, and other nutrients and waste products.
Place the anatomical structures of the respiratory system in order.
1. Mouth/nose
2. Epiglottis
3. Glottis
4. Pharynx
5. Larynx
6. Trachea
7. Bronchi
8. Bronchioles
9. Alveoli
What is the thin surface covering the lungs?
Plura
What works to reduce surface tension in the lungs?
lung surfactants
What are the contractile muscles of the respiratory system?
The diaphragm and the intercostal
The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles are contracted during what and relaxed during what?
Contracted during inspiration and relaxed during expiration
During Inspiration what happens?
volume of lungs increases and pressure decreases
During Expiration what happens?
Volume of lungs decreases and pressure increases
What activates respiratory centers in response to several stimuli?
Chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid arteries. The strongest stimulus is CO2 increase, and other stimuli include pH decrease as well as O2 decrease
What is a tidal volume?
the amount of air taken in a single breath.
What is vital capacity?
the amount of air taken in during maximum respiration
Automatic breathing is chiefly regulated in the brain by what?
the medulla oblongata
What activates respiratory centers in response to several stimuli?
Chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid arteries. The strongest stimulus is CO2 increase, and other stimuli include pH decrease as well as O2 decrease
Diffusion of gas between blood and the lungs is the result of what?
concentration gradient
O2 has a lower partial pressure in venous blood than in capillary air causing it to diffuse into or out of the lungs?
out of the lungs
CO2 has a higher partial pressure in venous blood than in capillary air causing it to diffuse into or out of the lungs?
into the lungs
What is another storage protein for oxygen found in skeletal muscles that allow diving animals to hold their breath for extended periods of time?
myoglobin
Capillaries allow the transfer of substances through their walls, they are the only blood vessels thin enough for what?
for substances to cross between the blood and interstitial fluid.
Materials can be exchanged in the capillaries through what?
diffusion, exocytosis, or through openings between adjoining cells.
What is the difference between hydrostatic and osmotic pressure?
hydrostatic pressure pushes fluid out while osmotic pressure draws fluid back in due to the presence of blood proteins.
Why does osmotic pressure draw fluid back in due to the presence of blood proteins?
because blood proteins are too large to pass through the capillaries, so they remain in the caps. and this is what causes the osmotic pressure.
Why does osmotic pressure stay the same but hydrostatic changes?
The hydrostatic pressure is high at arterial end and decreases because the energy is lost and H2O has moved out of the capillaries.
If the blood/hydrostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure what happens?
There would be a net loss of fluids from the capillaries into extracellular fluid and swelling would result. ex. African bellies and blisters.
If the blood/hydrostatic pressure is less than osmotic pressure what happens?
There would be a net movement of fluid into the capillaries. Causes an increase in pressure at venous end of capillaries. ex. pulmonary edema
What is the blood composition?
55% plasma, and 45% erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
What is a countercurrent exchange?
exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite direction.
The countercurrent flow of water and blood makes a partial pressure gradient where O2 does what?
diffuses from the water into the blood along the entire capillary length.
Birds air flow is unidirectional. Why is this advantageous?
Because in mammals out respiratory tract is dead end.
What does bronchi contain?
contain rings of cartilage that keeps them open at all times. Without them the bronchi would collapse
What is an alveoli?
made of thin flattened cells in bunches. Inside the alveoli is air that moves in and out.
What is a countercurrent exchange?
exchange of a substance or heat between two fluids flowing in opposite direction.
The countercurrent flow of water and blood makes a partial pressure gradient where O2 does what?
diffuses from the water into the blood along the entire capillary length.
Birds air flow is unidirectional. Why is this advantageous?
Because in mammals out respiratory tract is dead end. air coming into a mammal's lungs is mixed with 'old' air (air that has been in the lungs for a while) & this 'mixed air' has less oxygen. So, in bird lungs, more oxygen is available to diffuse into the blood
What does bronchi contain?
contain rings of cartilage that keeps them open at all times. Without them the bronchi would collapse
What is an alveoli?
made of thin flattened cells in bunches. Inside the alveoli is air that moves in and out.
What happens in the respiratory zone?
Gas exchange occurs (O2 goes into the capillaries, CO2 goes out of the capillaries)
What is the best way to maximize diffusion?
Increase the surface area.
The tendency for lungs to recoil depends on what two factors?
1. The elastic fibers themselves
2. Surface tension
Why will the alveoli always have a tendency to collapse?
the alveoli are very tiny, because of this they will collapse due to high surface tension and high internal pressure.
Why is the first breath we took the hardest?
Since there is no air in the womb, the infants lungs are collapsed. We have to expand the lung and fight against the elastic force the moment air starts entering, we get surface tension that wants to collapse the lung.
What are lung surfactants?
They are detergent-like molecules that decrease surface area to prevent alveolar collapse.
When do surfactants mature?
after the 7th month of pregnancy.
What are two ways to inflate a ballon? Which method do our lungs use to get air inside?
1. decrease pressure surrounding the ballon (i.e. forcing the pressure inside the ballon to push it out), will increase the pressure inside the ballon and inflate it.
2. generate pressure gradient by directly blowing air into it
-method 1
What are external intercostals?
muscles between ribs. Upon contraction, they will lift and open up the ribs, which also increase volume and decrease pressure.
What organ has the respiratory center?
medulla oblongata, pons regulate respiration as well.
What is the stimuli for ventilation?
- ↑ in CO2
- ↓ in pH- stimulates respiration from metabolism and ↑ in CO2
-↓ in O2
Solubility of gas decreases as temperature increases or decrease?
Increases (which is why when you warm up a can of soda, it loses its carbonation.
THe normal solubilities of O2 and CO2 in water are not sufficient to accommodate gas transport. O2 is 20 times less soluble than CO2 at body temp. How is this fixed?
Solved by using proteins to channel O2 throughout our body (hemoglobin)
98% of O2 in the blood is bound to hemoglobin, how does HB let go of its O2 molecules?
Because HB is a tetramer. Each one of the subunits is in contact with the other subunit. If one O2 molecule binds to a tetramer then it causes a change in shape, this increases the affinity and binds to more O2.
CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid that dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate. This reaction can be catalyzed by what enzyme? and Where is it found?
By carbonic anhydrase, which are found in RBCs but not in the blood plasma.
What causes lungs to recoil naturally?
elasticity
At rest, only inspiration requires the use of energy while expiration is what?
passive
During exercise, expiration is caused by what?
The active contraction of abdominal muscles which decreases the volume of the lungs
Respiratory center are most resilient to what kind of conditions?
low oxygen conditions
Chemoreceptors have autonomic nerves that stimulate...
the respiratory center
Respiration increases at higher altitudes because?
the lower oxygen levels
Because O2 has a lower partial pressure and CO2 has a higher partial pressure in venous blood than in capillary air, Where will O2 and CO2 diffuse into?
O2 will diffuse into the blood and CO2 will diffuse into the capillaries
Heme proteins contain what percentage of oxygen in the body?
99%
What element does Hemoglobin use as its oxygen-binding component?
iron
Hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen increases as more or less oxygen is bound to it?
more
What stimulates a left shift in a dissociation curve?
-Low temp
-Low metabolism
-Low pH
What stimulates a right shift in a dissociation curve?
-High temp
-High metabolism
-High pH
Why does fetal hemoglobin have a higher affinity for oxygen (want to bind to O2, carry more easily)?
Because it must get its oxygen from the mother's blood, so dissociation curve is shifted left.
Where is myoglobin found?
It is found in skeletal muscles