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34 Cards in this Set

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This drug inhibits the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells?
Cromolyn Sodium.

**Note: to be effective, cromolyn sodium needs to be administered before exposure to asthma precipitating factors.
This drug is an example of beta-2 selective agonist.
Albuterol

Terbutaline

Salmeterol
This drug is a beta-2-agonist that is short acting and has fast onset.
Albuterol and Terbutaline
What are some side effects of albuterol and terbutaline?
Beta-2-agonists which can cause hypokalemia due to intracellular uptake of potassium.
What is the drug of choice for acute asthma attacks?
Albuterol
These drugs are non-specific beta agonists that can be used to relax bronchial muscle.
Epinephrine and Isoproterenol.

Side effects: tachycardia due to action on B1: anxiety, fear. Also used in acute asthma attacks!
This drug is a long acting agent used for prophylasis of moderate persistent asthma. It is long acting beta-2-agonist.
Salmeterol.
This drug inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase and this increases bronchodilation?
Theophylline (Methylxanthine)
What is side effect of theophylline, a methylxanthine?
Narrow therapeutic index: cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity.
This drug blocks muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction.
Ipratropium.
These classes of drugs are given to asthmatics unresponsive to other therapies.
Beclothmethasone, prednisone
What is the mechanism of beclomethasone and prednisone?
Inhibit synthesis of all cytokines.

INACTIVES NF-KAPPA BETA, the transcription factor that produces TNF alpha among other inflammatory agents.
What drug is the first line agent for chronic asthma?
Beclomethasone or prednisone.
What is cellular mechanism of Beta-2- agonists or beta agonists?
Active adenylate cyclase by activating Gs and converting ATP to cAMP. So it activates adenylate cyclase, increase cAMP causing bronchodilation!!!
What is the action of adenosine on bronchial tone?
Causes bronchoconstriction!!! Theophylline also thought to block adenosine.
What effect do muscarinic agonists have on bronchial tone?
Bronchoconstriction.
This drug blocks 5-lipoxygenase
Zileuton
This drug blocks leukotriene receptors.
ZarfLUEKast MonteLEUKast
This drug is a reversible inhibitor of H1 histamine receptor and cause sedation.
1st generation:
1) diphenhydramine
2) dimehydrinate
3) chlorpheniramine
What is chlorpheniramine used for?
Histamine H1 receptor blocker.
What is the toxicity of diphenhydramine?
Allergy, motion, sickness..
What are toxicites of 1st generation anti-histamines (diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, dimenhydrinate)?
1) Antimuscarinic
2) Anti-adrenergic
3) Sedation
This drug can be used to treat allergy, motion sickness, and be used in sleep aid.
Diphenhydramine
What is MOA of loratidine?
reversible inhibitor of H1 histamine receptors.
What is MOA of fexofenadine?
reversible inhibitor of H1 histamine receptors.
What is MOA of desloratadine
reversible inhibitor of H1 histamine receptors.
What are the 2nd generation drugs?
Loratadine
What are the 2nd generation drugs?
Fexofenadine
This drug is an alpha 1-receptor agonist used to treat nasal congestion
Phenylephrine
This drug is an alpha 1-receptor agonist used to treat nasal congestion
Pseudophedrine
What is MOA of pseudophedrine?
Block alpha 1 receptor.
The major side effect of this drug is increased blood pressure?
Phenylephrine
Pseudophedrine.
What is codeine used for in terms of cough?
Supresses cough center. Opiod derivative.
What is special about dextromethorphan?
Opiod antagonist that does NOT cross BBB, so can suppress cough without causing respiratory depression. Commonly found in cold medication.