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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
made from microorganisms and inhibits growth of other microorganisms
anything synthetic or biological that inhbits the growth of microoragnisms
anything that inhibits bacterial growth
gram negative bacteria
have thinner cell walls but an outer membrane that prevents the penetration of certain drugs
gram positive bacteria
very thick cell wall, but no outermembrane to make it hard for drugs to cross
Bacteriostatic antibiotic
- inhibits bacterial replication, but the inhibition is reversed upon drug removal
- viability remains constant
Bactericidal antibiotic
- the drug has an irreversible lethal effect on the bacteria
- generally effect only growing microbs, so dont use w/ statics!
- viability ↓’s log w/ time
concentration-dependent killing
- Maxing peak serum []’s will ↑ effectiveness and ↓ emergence of resistant strains
time-dependent killing
- there is not ↑ killing w/ ↑ []’s
- killing continues if [] remains above the MIC
Postantibiotic Effec
- the persistent suppression of bacterial cell growth after limited exposure to an antimicrobial
– the difference in the time it takes for a culture to return to log growth after removal the antimicrobial when compared to an untreated control
- usually more than 1.5 hrs and allows once daily dosing, esp w/ []-dependent
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC
- expresses Ab susceptibility
- defined as the lowest [] of Ab that prevents growth
- the combined MIC is higher
- penicillin and erythromycin
- the combined MIC is lower
- penicillin & aminoglycoside
- trimethoprim & sulfa
mechanisms of genetic drug resistance
- mutation and selection,
- plasmid transfer, most common
- chromosomal DNA uptake and homologous recombination (common in Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria)